Arts History Update for early August 2015

1 Aug

Arts History Update for early August 2015 by David Cummins

www.artshistoryupdates.com

It’s high summer and here is a view of Mount Baldy at Sun Valley Idaho where many of the ski runs down the mountain are easily seen. The foreground is the White Cloud golf course where greens fees are outrageously high http://www.gammagammaalumni.com/videos/SunValleyWebCom/ I never played any golf course and only once went into the Sun Valley Lodge complex because I wanted to see Esther Williams swim in the outdoor heated pool in December. Didn’t get to see her as it was cordoned off and restricted, but was out bar prowling that night in Ketchum Idaho and saw her come out of a bar just as I was entering. It was 45 seconds of hobnobbing with the rich and famous if that is a fair description of gawking at the athlete / movie star.

The photograph of Mount Baldy in summer is very interesting to all skiers of the mountain. I still remember the names of each of the runs. I was a college student and just barely at the low end of semi-competence in skiing, and in the company of peers so went on all the runs and all the way to the top several times, and skied and fell my way down several runs. It was thrilling. Broke a ski on one run, scratched my way to the bottom on one ski, rented a pair of skis and went up and finished out the day. Hot blood and intemperate behavior are marks of a youth and his reckless assumption of immortality.

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Topic: The Seven Sins according to Mohandes Gandhi

Please review the list of Gandhi’s seven sins before the monthly meeting in order to facilitate our discussion:

Knowledge without character
Commerce without morality
Science without humanity
Worship without sacrifice
Politics without principle
Wealth without work
Pleasure without conscience

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David H. Arrington Collection of 103 photographs by Ansel Adams: American Master are on exhibit at Texas Tech Museum http://www.andrewsmithgallery.com/exhibitions/anseladams/arrington/arrington_adams.html from August 14, 2015 – January 17, 2016 in Galleries 2 and 3.

This exhibition is a collection of 103 photographic works of art surveying a lifetime of creative insight and photographic acumen by American master, Ansel Adams (1902-1984). Adams prevails as a premier American artist of the 20th century and his images established the standard for American landscape photography. The masterful photographs have been curated from one of the largest collections of Adams art work in the world. Midland Texas resident David H. Arrington, an advocate and student of Adams’ artistic methods, gathered not only many hundreds of Adams’ original works but the most iconic and finest prints that the artist ever completed. He generously shared his collection with the Museum.

August 14… Ansel Adams: Workshop for Teachers, 9am-12pm (lunch provided). The Education Division is offering a workshop to teachers regarding the exhibition of Ansel Adams photographs that will be on exhibit at the Museum August 2015 through January 2016. Lunch, all materials, and the workshop registration are free of charge, made possible by generous support from The Helen Jones Foundation, Inc. Continuing Professional Education credit is available. The workshop is limited to 20 participants and is open to teachers of any discipline, at any grade level. Depending upon who registers for the workshop, we will adjust lessons and activities accordingly. Registrations must be made no later than July 24. To register, or if you have questions, please email, Dr. Jill Hoffman, Curator of Education at jill.hoffman@ttu.edu.

August 15 Saturday@TheMuseum: Adams Gallery Photography, 1-4pm. Come and learn about the beauty of Ansell Adams photography while doing an in gallery activity. All ages welcome. Registration required. Free event.

August 15 Gallery Talk: Imagining What Ansel Adams Could Do with Digital Technology, 2:00-3:30pm. The Lubbock Camera Club and West Texas Photographic Society will give a demonstration of how Ansel Adams might have used current digital technology to enhance photographs. Museum Jones Auditorium Reception to follow. Registration requested. Free event.

October 11 Presentation by Ann McDonald photographer on Composing the Perfect Picture and Memories with the Master, Ansel Adams at 2:00 pm Museum Jones Auditorium free event.

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Todd W. Wahlstrom, The Southern Exodus to Mexico: Migration Across the Borderlands After the American Civil War (University of Nebraska Press 2015) 232 pages $46.13 hardcover $43.82 e-book ABE Books new $43.95 incl s&h

After the Civil War a handful of former Confederate leaders joined forces with Mexican Emperor Maximilian von Hapsburg to colonize Mexico with former American slaveholders. Their plan was to develop commercial agriculture in the Mexican state of Coahuila under the guidance of former slaveholders with slaves providing the bulk of the labor force. By developing these new centers of agricultural production and commercial exchange, the imperial Mexican government hoped to open up new markets and, by extending the few already-existing railroads in the region, also spur further development.

The Southern Exodus to Mexico considers the experiences of both white southern elites and common white and black southern farmers and laborers who moved to Mexico during this period. Todd W. Wahlstrom examines in particular how the endemic warfare, raids, and violence along the borderlands of Texas and Coahuila affected the colonization effort. Ultimately, Native groups such as the Comanches, Kiowas, Apaches, and Kickapoos, along with local Mexicans, prevented southern colonies from taking hold in the region, where local tradition and careful balances of power negotiated over centuries held more sway than large nationalistic or economic forces. This study of the trans-cultural tensions and conflicts in this region provides new perspectives for the historical assessment of this period of Mexican and American history.

When the Mexican Revolution began in 1810 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla declared slavery abolished. Hidalgo was captured on January 17, 1811 and executed by firing squad on July 30, 1811. After the Revolution succeeded in 1821 the new government Republic of Mexico abolished slavery throughout Mexico and its territories including Tejas by the Guerrero Decree in 1829, but the decree was not enforced in Tejas against either Tejanos or Anglo-Texians. Still, its existence made slaveholding Anglo-Texians nervous and anxious about their agricultural economic system so dependent on slaves for labor.

The Guerrero Decree that abolished slavery throughout the Republic of Mexico except in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, was issued by President Vicente R. Guerrero on September 15, 1829. Guerrero may have acted under the influence of Jose Maria Tornel, who hoped the decree would be a check on American immigration, or he may have issued it as a personal measure because his enemies accused him of being partly of African descent. The decree reached Tejas on October 16, but Ramon Musquiz, the political chief, withheld its publication because it was in violation of the colonization laws, which guaranteed the settlers security for their persons and property. The news of the decree did alarm the Anglo-Texians who petitioned Guerrero to exempt Tejas from the operation of the law. On December 2 Agustin Viesca, secretary of relations, wrote the governor of Tejas that no change would be made respecting the slaves in Texas. Though the decree was never put into operation, it left a conviction in the minds of many Tejas colonists that their economic interests were not safe.

It is against this background that we notice that the French-Austrian Emperor Maximilian 1862-1867 was willing to allow slave holding in northern territories of Mexico by these Anglo-Confederates who had lost the Civil War in America. As it turned out, southern American slaveholders chose the wrong side again.

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Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 [Obamacare in political rhetoric] private for profit and not-for-profit health insurance carriers submitted their proposals for premium rates for the following year 2016 by early Spring 2015. Since full coverage under the Affordable Care Act only went into effect on January 1, 2014 the submissions this Spring were the first after a full year of experience under full coverage by those insurers. Here is a review of those proposals and what both state insurance departments and the federal government will be looking at before setting the maximum premium rates for 2016. The proposals vary widely by insurance carrier in the same market, and they vary widely by the geographical localities that form markets. This was to be expected. A number of insurers proposed small one or two percent reductions in premiums, and that was to be expected as well since some insurers were unwilling to match the low premiums other insurers initially bid. http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/blog/2015/jul/proposed-premium-rate-increases-for-2016

Most people understand that there are a tier of health care plans offered to the public by a singe insurer in a single market, but most people do not understand that there is capitalistic free enterprise at work within the Affordable Care Act and so maximum premium rates are approved by government and set, insurer by insurer, just as they are for life, fire, homeowner or auto insurance policies. What is the “government”? It is first the state insurance department in each state, and then the federal government review board focused mostly on policies whose geographical coverage is greater than one state.

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Ribbon Cutting and walk through of the newly constructed Texas Tech University Innovation Hub building at Research Park, 3911 4th Street is Wednesday August 5 from 5:30-6:30 pm. Public may attend. The building is just west of Texas Tech Parkway and 4th Street, equivalent to Memphis Avenue and 4th Street, on the south side of 4th Street. The public art piece commissioned for the building has not been installed yet but Marco Cianfanelli a South African artist is working on it.

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Do you want to sing with the Lubbock Chorale? Auditions for the 2015-2016 season are Tuesday August 18 from 6:00 – 7:30 pm immediately before the Chorale rehearsal 7:30 – 9:30 pm in the School of Music Building M01. E-mail John Hollins artistic director john.hollins@ttu.edu or phone 806-778-4980 to set up an audition “musical interview”. The Chorale’s website is www.lubbockchorale.org

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Recycling at Texas Tech University is available not just to the Texas Tech community of faculty staff and students but to everyone in the Lubbock community. Free drop-off of recyclable materials. The recycling station is located behind i.e. south of the Housing Services Building whose front door is located on an un-named road that fronts on the steel fence that borders the south side of Marsha Sharp Freeway, at that point depressed below ground level. Drive to Main Street and Hartford Avenue on campus [west of Flint Avenue and east of Indiana Avenue on Main Street] across the street from the Student Recreation Center complex. Drive north on the road between a physical plant building and the Horticultural Gardens [arboretum]. Keep on driving until you come to the steel fence barrier overlooking Marsha Sharp Freeway. The road turns east and you follow it until you come to the Housing Services Building. Drive past the front door of the building and turn south between that building and another physical plant building. In the parking lot are the marked recycling containers and bins. There is a separate glass bin and separate cardboard container. Otherwise you may toss a bag into any bin. http://housing.ttu.edu/gogreen/recycle There are paid part-time student employees [work-study program] who will do a lot of sorting, separating and preparing materials for shipment to companies in the recycling industry. I saw a number of bins with un-bagged materials in them including glass so not everyone separates and bags their recyclables before dropping them off. Remember that it’s more important to recycle than to follow rules. Texas Tech is encouraging people to get into a habit or routine of recycling and commit to that culture.

If you live on the north or northwest side of town you may wish to drive to 9th Street and Indiana Avenue and proceed east on 9th Street crossing over Marsha Sharp Freeway, then turn right or south onto Flint Avenue, then take the first right west into a physical plant parking lot and gasoline fueling station and turn north onto that un-named road to the steel fence barrier overlooking Marsha Sharp Freeway and proceed west on the road and turn south between a physical plant building and the Housing Services Building into a lot where the recycling bins/containers are located. There are some small blue and white recycling station signs that help.

From the latter direction or from 19th Street and Indiana Avenue or Flint Avenue entrances onto campus, there are no entry stations so you don’t have to explain to anyone what you are doing on campus, and you don’t park anywhere so there is absolutely no hassle of any kind.

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Teddy Jack’s Hub City Grill is now open at 7205 Milwaukee Avenue http://www.lubbockintheloop.com/teddy-jacks/ but there are many bad reviews in the early days http://www.yelp.com/biz/teddy-jacks-hub-city-grill-lubbock-2 Same ownership as Cujo’s Sportz Bar & Grill at 5811 4th Street near Frankford Avenue http://cujossports.com Cujo is a nickname for Curtis Jordan, football player at Monterey High School, Texas Tech University and in the NFL National Football League 1976-1987 for Tampa Bay Buccaneers and Washington Redskins. Upon retirement he opened restaurants in the Washington DC area to great success, and expanded back home to Lubbock.

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Armenia and Armenians

Armenian Genocide by Turkey http://www.armenian-genocide.org/genocidefaq.html 1915-1918 and mopping up the remains 1920-1923 so as to rid central Turkey of Armenians who were neither Turks nor Muslims and so regarded as removable. The survivors fled nearly everywhere so it is called a diaspora, but many thousands fled from central Turkey into the Russian Caucasus and came under domination of the Soviet Union. Eventually the smallest of the Soviet Socialist Republics would become Armenia and after the breakup of the Soviet Union would be the independent Republic of Armenia (1991).

Historic Armenia encompassed all of eastern turkey except the strip littoral to the Black Sea, and included parts of today’s Georgia, Azerbaijan, Iran and Iraq. It also included Cilicia or Little Armenia on the Mediterranean Sea. From 1894 onward festerings from the weakening Ottoman Sultanate led to gangs attacking Armenian populations with impunity and by 1915 the Young Turks were in powerful positions in the nation and the genocide began with a vengeance http://www.armenica.org/history/en/overview/ by rounding up 700 Armenians in Istanbul on April 24, 1915 and deporting or murdering them.

There are innumerable famous Armenians but the artist Arshile Gorky, an abstract expressionist, is certainly one of them http://www.persons.am/en/3199.html and his life is a single story about the genocide. Gorky was born about 1904 on the shores of Lake Van in the heartland of Armenia. His father, fearing conscription into the military of the quarrelsome Turks, bolted in 1910 and left the country for America leaving his family behind. Gorky’s mother led the children to safety in the Russian Caucasus but perished from starvation in 1919 in Yerevan. Gorky fled to America in 1920 reuniting with his father but they were never close.

Turkey, the nation, continually denies that any genocide took place and affirmatively enforces that position be preventing opponents space to oppose or assert otherwise http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/4/24/for-turks-acknowledging-an-armenian-genocide-undermines-national-identity.html The government tries to equate its denial with its national identity.

Raymond H. Kevorkian, The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History (I.B. Tauris 2011) 1,029 pages Texas Tech Library DS195.5.K48 little known in America is that after the end of The Great War in 1918 the allied powers looked at the crumbling Ottoman Empire and saw that The Young Turks had engaged in an ongoing genocide of Christian Armenians and so president Woodrow Wilson wanted to intervene [wanted to receive a USA mandate over Armenia from the League of Nations] but the American Congress forbade it in 1920 (it gathered only 23 votes in U.S. Senate) and the genocide continued until done in 1923. It took eight years 1915-1923 to kill 2 million Armenians and displace the remnant to the Soviet Union Caucasus region as the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic with a capital at Yerevan. Armenian Apostolic Church http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_Apostolic_Church is the world’s oldest national church, the first ethnic group to adopt Christianity formally in 301 AD but informally in the first century AD by missions from the apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus. http://www.armenianchurch.org/index.jsp?&lng=en Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia fell in 1375 AD so what was left was western Armenia in Turkey and eastern Armenia in Russia. The Armenian Republic was declared 1918-1920 http://www.jdemirdjian.com/page2008/Democratic_Republic_of_Armenia.htm in eastern Armenia but in 1920 the Soviet Red Army came in and conquered so it became the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1922 bounded on the west by Turkey, north by Georgia, east by Azerbaijan, and south by Iran. When the Soviet Union fell in 1991 it became the current Republic of Armenia. http://www.armenian-history.com/
Venice Biennale 2015 http://www.labiennale.org/en/art/ May 9 – November 22, 2015 includes a Republic of Armenia exhibition ARMENIA, Republic of

Armenity / Haiyutioun. Contemporary Artists from the Armenian Diaspora

Haig Aivazian, Lebanon; Nigol Bezjian, Syria/USA; Anna Boghiguian Egypt/Canada; Hera Büyüktasçiyan, Turkey; Silvina Der-Meguerditchian, Argentina/Germany; Rene Gabri & Ayreen Anastas, Iran/Palestine/USA; Mekhitar Garabedian, Belgium; Aikaterini Gegisian, Greece; Yervant Gianikian & Angela Ricci Lucchi, Italy; Aram Jibilian, USA; Nina Katchadourian, USA/Finland; Melik Ohanian, France; Mikayel Ohanjanyan, Armenia/Italy; Rosana Palazyan, Brazil; Sarkis, Turkey/France; Hrair Sarkissian, Syria/UK

Commissioner: Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Armenia. Deputy Commissioner: Art for the World Europa, Mekhitarist Congregation of San Lazzaro Island,  Embassy of the Republic of Armenia in Italy, Vartan Karapetian.Curator: Adelina Cüberyan von Fürstenberg. Venue: Monastery and Island of San Lazzaro degli Armeni

www.armenity.net

and it won the Golden Lion Award for best national participation at the 56th Venice Biennale http://www.armenity.net

Each nation that enters the Biennale constructs a pavilion in which the art pieces are displayed. The Armenian pavilion’s title is Armenity/Haiyutioun: Contemporary Artists from the Armenian Diaspora. That pavilion is not located where the other national pavilions are located in the Giardini and Arsenale districts within Venice, but on a small island in the Venice Lagoon, viz., San Lazzaro degli Armeni. The story behind that location is that the Venice Republic gave San Lazzaro to the Armenian monk Mekhitar in 1717 to found a monastery. Mekhitar was an Armenian Catholic and the majority of Armenians were orthodox members of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Mekhitar’s order of monks was located in Constantinople but they were persecuted by the Ottoman Sultan and the majority Armenian Church and so left for Venice where the Mekhitarist Congregation played a central role in the revival of Armenian culture, printing dictionaries and books, educating teachers, and providing shelter for the persecuted. The walls of the San Lazzaro monastery are currently transformed into showrooms for art pieces by 16 Armenian diaspora artists. At the entrance to the island from the pier is a bronze statuary piece of art by the French Armenian Melik Ohanian Streetlights of Memory: A Stand By Memorial (2010-2015) initially intended as a gift by the Armenian community to the City of Geneva Switzerland but rejected by it at the insistence of Turkey. http://www.agos.com.tr/en/article/9975/final-curtain-in-armenian-genocide-monument-bargain-in-switzerland A piece of art can be a surrogate for political battles. It is now a heap of broken pieces, 87 in number, rather than proud upright beaconing street lamps. Here are images of the pavilion exhibits http://www.domusweb.it/en/art/2015/06/15/armenity.html

Arts History Update for late July 2015

19 Jul

Arts History Update for late July 2015 by David Cummins

www.artshistoryupdates.com

Is too much of a good thing still a good thing, or is it just too much? In 1965 a hotly debated political struggle ended with the establishment of a Landmarks Preservation Commission for New York City. Fast forward 50 years and this unique city has 1,300 individual landmarks, 114 historic districts, and 33,000 land-marked properties. These include 100 lamp posts, seven cast-iron sidewalk clocks, three Coney Island amusement park rides, and a magnifloria grandiflora tree planted in Brooklyn in 1885 from which a novel arose Betty Smith, A Tree Grows In Brooklyn: A Novel (Harper 1947). It also includes Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House, a wooden frame structure built in 1652 and the city’s oldest structure in the East Flatbush section of Brooklyn. http://wyckoffmuseum.org What it doesn’t include is Pennsylvania Station that was razed to the ground in 1963-1965 and precipitated the public and political outcry that brought forward the landmark preservation law.

The Museum of the City of New York http://www.mcny.org/exhibition/saving-place exhibit Saving Place: 50 Years of New York City Landmarks is on view from April 21-September 13, 2015 and tells a remarkable story. Preservation activities helped spawn an architecture community of professionals who are expert in renovating and re-purposing historic or landmarked properties so that they remain historic but are perfectly useful and valuable in today’s market and society. Also, these professionals learned how to construct new buildings within an historic district so as not to clash with or displace or alter what is historic about the district. Smart architecture and smart technology is the best kind today.

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The Robert Bruno Steel House will be available for public viewing and walk through on Sunday October 4, 2015 from 1:00 – 5:00 pm admission $10 at 91 E. Canyon View Drive in Ransom [Rescate] Canyon. This 35 year project by the late Robert Bruno is an art and architectural masterpiece even if not livable for a contemporary nuclear family. That day and time is also the 2015 Art Show for the Ransom Canyon Property Owners Association and payment of the viewing fee at the Steel House is also the admission fee for the Art Show at the Ranch House down below lakeside where art is exhibited and sold. Since several of the residents and former residents are accomplished artists, this show is surprisingly good for many first timers. No surprise for those who’ve attended in previous years. For more information call Jackie De Vore Lindsey 806-543-7089 or e-mail Ransomcanyonpoa@sptc.net. Ranch House manager is Ron Bornick phone 806-407-0510 and the new Ranch House is bookable as an event center.

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Noted iconographer, Peter Pearson, is returning to Lubbock!

The class will be held September 15-19, at St. Christopher’s Episcopal Church, Lubbock. Class will meet Tuesday to Friday nights from 6:00-9:00pm, and Saturday morning 9:00am-12:00 noon.

Cost is $300. All supplies will be provided.

To reserve a place please send a check for $50.00 to St. Christopher’s Episcopal Church, 2807 42nd, Lubbock, Texas 79413. Please include your contact information and email address.

For questions, please contact:

Tom Hicks

hicks3@yahoo.com

806-787-8271

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Vendor Market is Saturday July 18 from 11:00 – 5:00 pm at 1108 Main Street downtown. The location is two blocks southeast of Mahon Library, one block west of the County Courthouse and in the block north of Broadway on Avenue J. There will be live demonstrations of crafts and creating art pieces, hot food, cold beverages, and more than fifteen artists have booths with creations for sale.

Julio Gonzalez is owner of United We Art at 1108 Main Street https://www.facebook.com/UnitedWeArt and Nikki Uriegas is owner of Lion and Owl at the same address http://www.lionandowl.com Here is the lowdown Welcome to Lion & Owl, home of a selection of eclectic notions from the collections of artisans, salvagers, and fashionistas in the Lubbock, Texas area. Lion & Owl is located at 1108 Main St in downtown Lubbock. We are open by appointment only, during First Friday Art Trail, and during our monthly Vendor Market Event. For more details contact lionandowlboutique@gmail.com!

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Nelly Arcan 1973-2009 [name at birth Isabelle Fortier] was a Quebecois who worked in Montreal as a prostitute and was obsessed with beauty, distressed by its passing, and committed suicide at age 36. Surprisingly for many people she was an accomplished writer and her semi-autobiographical novels marked her descent and demise Whore: A Novel (2001, transl. Bruce Benderson, Black Cat 2004), Hysteric: A Novel (2004, transl. David and Jacob Homel, Anvil Press 2014), Breakneck: A Novel (2007, transl. David & Jacob Homel, Anvil Press 2014), and Exit: A Novel (2009, transl. David Scott Hamilton, Anvil Press 2014). Soon after finishing this last novel she took her life by hanging.

Her collected non-fiction pieces are published posthumously in Nelly Arcan, Burqa of Skin (transl. Melissa Bell, Anvil Press 2014) Texas Tech Library PQ 3919.3.A78 B8713 the title refers to the author’s belief that in some parts of the world when women come of age they must be veiled while in the western world they cover themselves with a burqa of skin. Arcan wrote “Shame begets an endless lineage of women that strings together in hangmen’s nooses’ birth knots which lump, one after the next, like a snake that eats its tail, digesting itself and regenerating, self-sufficient, neither starving nor quenched.” The raw pain in that single sentence is expressed throughout her writings. Arcan’s philosophical wrestlings with humanity and in particular her revulsion from male power are seen from a “society is broken” perspective rather than an “all men are inherently evil” perspective. Would that she could have realized that the commercial buy/sell paradigm on view in urban daily life is not society but rather what so many people in society do to put bread on the table. She was obviously remarkably intelligent, always trying to second guess how and why a woman should be, and she found death the only answer to her predicament. The titles of her novels Whore, Hysteric, Breakneck and Exit succinctly and poignantly summarize the short life and hard won philosophy of this exceptional writer.

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Frank Lloyd Wright’s Hollyhock House (1921) for Aline Barnsdall in Los Angeles was just lovingly restored and re-opened to the public. Here are two dozen photographs of the masterpiece http://www.architecturaldigest.com/blogs/architects-eye/2015/07/frank-lloyd-wright-hollyhock-house-slideshow?title=1 that is now available for tours at only $7 per person http://www.barnsdall.org/visit/hollyhock-house/tours/ 4800 Hollywood Blvd as a central feature of the Barnsdall Art Park.

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Landwer-Manicapelli House http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=52149 at Buddy Holly Recreation Area astride Conquistador Lake the northwesterly and first of the Jim Bertram Canyon Lakes System of six lakes, was re-opened July 18, 2015 at 10:00 am with a formal ribbon-cutting after a $750,000 renovation by City of Lubbock.

Dr. and Mrs. Milton Fredric Landwer http://cherokee.tosm.ttu.edu/ttunrm/scholarships/individual_NRM_scholarships/virginia_landwer.php built the house in Spanish Mission revival style in 1936 the year he and Virginia married. They had no children. Dr. Landwer was a zoology professor at Texas Technological College from 1927 until his retirement in 1966. His wife Virginia taught biology at Lubbock High School. At that time Yellowhouse Draw was an active creek and Landwer put in an earthen dam to create a pond or small lake adjoining their home. Their neighbor was Boles Dairy operated by George B. Boles. Dr. Landwer 1897-October 17, 1980 age 83. Virginia Landwer 1916-November 22, 1996 age 80. Endowed scholarships were bequeathed for needy Texas Tech students.

Joseph and Mrs. Manicapelli bought the house in 1947 and thereafter extended it to the south and to the north putting in an additional fireplace in the north extension to add to the two fireplaces in the Landwer house. Steel casement windows were used in the extensions. Joseph died April 9, 1963 and his widow sold the house to the City of Lubbock in 1972. In 1980 the City spent $100,000 to renovate the House and in 1982 it was designated as a historical landmark. It was thereafter used as a rental or party house until the roof collapsed in 2008 and it was closed. By 2012 the City committed to spend $414,000 to renovate it, eventually spending $750,000 prior to its reopening in Summer 2015.

The City currently leases the House to Fiestas del Llano Inc. that will rent out the House for events. For booking call Sam Harper at 806-789-5013. Fiestas del Llano Inc is a Texas non-profit corporation # 0101005901 federal employer identification number 75-1943892 registered address P.O. Box 94814 Lubbock TX 79493-4814 registered agent Sam R. Harper 5701 County Road 6170 Lubbock TX 79415 and annually produces a Fiestas Patrias [patriotic party celebrating Mexican Hispanic heritage] in Lubbock, typically the weekend prior to September 16 Mexican Independence Day in 1821. Here is the schedule for 2014 http://www.everythinglubbock.com/news/local-news/fiestas-del-llano-2014-events-scheduled-for-thursday-sunday

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A Taste of Terry County Vineyard Festival is Saturday August 1, 2015 in and near Brownfield Texas http://www.brownfieldchamber.com/taste-of-terry-county it includes a viticulture and wine exposition at American Legion Hall 1021 South 8th Street in Brownfield 8:00 – 5:00 pm free admission, a tour of Texas Custom Crush Wine Works at 1823 Terry County Road # 460 Brownfield and three vineyards outside of town beginning at 9:00 am $15 per person, and a concluding Food and Wine Event at the Senior Center 1201 Tahoka Highway $35 per person.

Terry County is now officially the Wine Grape Capital of Texas [since June 17, 2015 by Governor Abbott signing a legislative document] and unofficially the “Napa Valley” of Texas. Texas Custom Crush Wine Works http://texascustomwineworks.com is the hub for the burgeoning industry. If you collar Dusty Timmons he is the founder of Twin T Vineyards and a viticulture expert. His brother Andy Timmons is owner of Lost Draw Vineyard. If you run into Mike Sipowicz he is an enologist wine producer. The Brownfield Chamber of Commerce is the sponsor of all these good times, call 806-637-2564 for more information.

Here is an incomplete list of Texas High Plains vineyards http://highplainswinegrowers.org/high_plains_vineyards

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Arts History Update for mid July 2015

10 Jul

Arts History Update for mid July 2015 by David Cummins

www.artshistoryupdates.com

The stiff traditions at Wimbledon bring out my scholarly inclinations to do some research into the history of tennis. We know that a variation was played by royals and courtiers in the age of King Henry VIII of England in the 16th century but they were late arrivals to the game as it was played elsewhere in Europe in Sweden, Holland, Spain, France, Italy and Belgium in the 15th century. Turns out that tennis is not an eccentric survival of an elite pastime but rather was within the mainstream of European sport. In Vetulonia Italy https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vetulonia it was played five to a side with the hand rather than a racket in the main square of the town, scored 15-20-40 advantage, and the territorial chase system was obtained by chalk marking-off of base and side lines and fault lines. In Friesland [Dutch Province] it was called kaatsen, in Gotland [Sweden] parkspel, in Belgium balle-pelote or balle au gant, in Valencia Spain it was called raspall, and in France it was called balle a la main or balle au tamis or longue paume.

Even in the 15th century women played, such as Margot of Hainaut who played so well and became so accomplished in Brussels that she took her game on the road to Paris where she accepted challenge and exhibition matches and won prizes and money, eventually retiring back to the Abbey of Soleilmont, Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soleilmont_Abbey discussion at http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article1572824.ece Roger Morgan, Tennis: The Development of the European Ball Game (Ronaldson 1995) 259 pages hardcover ABE Books very good condition $55.13; Heiner Gillmeister, Tennis: A Cultural History (New York University Press 1998) tracing the game to medieval times 452 pages Texas Tech Library GV 1002.95.E85 G5613 Amazon.com $29.50 new and ABE Books $12.35 good condition.

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It was bound to happen and now it has. Inn of the Mountain Gods Resort and Casino Apache have thrown out the clock and are now open 24/7 http://innofthemountaingods.com/casino/ one had hoped that urban customs would never enter the pristine Sacramento Mountains of the southern Rockies. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacramento_Mountains_(New_Mexico) Is this Geronimo’s revenge? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geronimo

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Camp Marfa and thereafter Fort D. A. Russell has always been hallowed ground on the southwest side of the town of Marfa Texas. Recently the deteriorating buildings on the former fort’s hospital grounds were razed and it is now a construction site. Before picture is above. Chinati Foundation headquarters is on the lower post portion of the former fort. It is the upper portion where the former hospital buildings stood in a state of deterioration but I very much enjoyed walking through the area and dreaming about soldiers who convalesced and healed in those quarters.

After picture is here

The AmVets/USO building on the former fort was restored and renovated in 2011 and became the City of Marfa Tourist Information and Convention Center. AmVets is short for American Veterans of Foreign Wars and USO is the acronym for United Services Organization that was present in many communities to host dances, movies, social gatherings of all sorts, and provide a taste of civilian life for soldiers and sailors who were far from home. A petition was filed to restore the old name AmVets/USO name to the building and another to rename it for a recent mayor of the town http://bigbendnow.com/2015/07/usovisitor-center-name-wont-change/

There is another Fort D.A. Russell near Cheyenne Wyoming so be careful to focus on the Fort D.A. Russell at Marfa Texas. Here’s a picture of the latter’s cavalry troops parading in Marfa Texas “back in the day” and the story of Camp Marfa 1911-1930 and Fort D.A. Russell 1930-1946. https://www.chinati.org/visit/forthistory.php Cavalry was decommissioned in 1933 to become mechanized infantry and tank battalions and that proved to be a wise decision when World War II erupted. A field artillery unit arrived to replace the cavalry troops in 1935. Claes Oldenburg & Coosje van Bruggen, Monument to the Last Horse (1991) in Marfa on lower post.

Marfa is sixty miles north of Presidio Texas on the border and across the Rio Grande from Ojinaga, Chihuahua, Mexico and you will recall the Mexican Revolution of 1910 to throw out the long-serving dictator Porfirio Diaz, and Mexico didn’t settle down until 1921 after the end of the first World War. Now you see the context and need for a southern US Army installation at Marfa. Pancho Villa commanded the revolutionary Army of the North and was always of concern to American military decision-makers http://www.biography.com/people/pancho-villa-9518733

The Presidio Ojinaga area is known as La Junta de los Rio because the Mexican river Rio Conchos runs into the Rio Bravo [Mexican name] Rio Grande [American name] at this point. http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/junta/index.html Fort Leaton State Historic Site is just east of Presidio but Fort Leaton was never a US Army post but rather a fortified trading post http://tpwd.texas.gov/publications/pwdpubs/media/pwd_br_p4501_0091c.pdf

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When Spaniards were finally able to elect a republican form of government sworn to redistribute land and power away from the wealthy right-wing clerical elite that had kept most Spaniards living in poverty for centuries, nationalist rebels under the command of General Francisco Franco attacked and overthrew the fragile new republican government in the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Civil_War Franco adopted a fascist creed and made pacts with Hitler’s Germany going so far as to invite German bombers to use Spanish stong-holds of republican opposition as target practice. This included Guernica that was bombed by Nazi aircraft and the artist Picasso would later paint the scene of horror suffered by the loyalist republicans. Guernica is in northern Spain near Bilbao on the Bay of Biscay. Franco’s Nationalists won the civil war and Franco ruled Spain autocratically until his death in 1975.

The classic contrast between a socialist Spanish Second Republic 1931-1939 and a fascist nationalist military, caused outside powers Germany Portugal and Italy to support Franco and the Soviet Union and Mexico to support the loyalists of the Second Republic. International Brigades were made up of foreigners bent on supporting the loyalist republicans and they flocked to Valencia and Barcelona and other republican strongholds for recruitment into the war. Ernest Hemingway was a war correspondent for an American newspaper in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. For Whom The Bell Tolls (1940) is Hemingway’s story of Robert Jordan, a young American in the International Brigades attached to a loyalist republican military unit. He is a dynamiter and is assigned to blow up a bridge during an attack on the City of Segovia.

Julian Casanova & Gil Andres, Twentieth Century Spain: A History (Cambridge University Press 2014) 377 pages Amazon.com $85 hardcover $27 paperback $14.60 e-book

Javier Tusell, Spain: From Dictatorship to Democracy: 1939 to the Present (Blackwell Pub’ns 2007) 494 pages Texas Tech Library DP 270.T835

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A retired college professor continues to explore the practices and potential of higher education.

The Aims of Higher Education: Problems of Morality and Justice (eds. Harry Brighouse & Michael S. McPherson, University of Chicago Press 2015) essays that demonstrate that higher education raises profound moral and philosophical issues and encourages faculty and students to be more conscious of the importance of those issues and to become more prepared to intellectually and personally confront them. 174 pages Amazon.com hardcover $85 paperback $25.46 $22 e-book

Suzanne Mettler, Degrees of inequality: How the Politics of Higher Education Sabotaged the American Dream (Basic Books 2014) 261 pages $19.44 hardcover $ 14.57 e-book Texas Tech Library LC 173.M48

Joel Best & Eric Best, The Student Loan Mess: How Good Intentions Created a Trillion Dollar Problem (University of California Press 2014) 233 pages $22.80 hardcover $14.55 e-book Texas Tech Library electronic download

William Zumeta et al., Financing American Higher Education in the Era of Globalization (Harvard Education Press 2012) 255 pages $30 paperback $19 e-book Texas Tech Library LB 2342.F56

William G. Bowen & Eugene M. Tobin, Locus of Authority: The Evolution of Faculty Roles in the Government of Higher Education (Princeton University Press 2015) 380 pages $19 hardcover $16.17 e-book Texas Tech Library electronic download. Bowen is a former president of Princeton University and Tobin a former president of Hamilton College.

Elizabeth A. Armstrong & Laura T. Hamilton, Paying for the Party: How College Maintains Inequality (Harvard University Press 2013) 326 pages $14.82 paperback $23 e-book Texas Tech Library electronic download

Andrew Delbanco, College: What It Was, Is, and Should Be (Princeton University Press 2012) 229 pages $14.19 paperback $10 e-book

Richard Arum & Josipa Roksa, Aspiring Adults Adrift: Tentative Transitions of College Graduates (University of Chicago Press 2014) 246 pages $13.36 paperback $10 e-book only one chapter provides the authors’ plan for change and it’s unsatisfying. The authors don’t admit that the world into which the matriculating graduate enters is economically, socially and politically adrift and replete with cross and counter currents. If the graduates weren’t adrift they’d have to be recluses. The real question is to what extent if at all are these graduates better able to deal and cope with the lives they enter upon? You can’t measure that by macro employment statistics.

My own experience with students and graduates from a graduate school / professional school is that their values, and their social interactions and awareness of challenges and opportunities were excellent, and they were comfortable and proud of their newly acquired competence within a profession. They were employed and employable to the extent they wished to be, and they performed well and managed their lives well or poorly and determined their own fates.

It was true then and still is true today that I noticed the adjacent undergraduate campus to be a location for a shocking amount of mindless “airhead” behaviors that embraced non-attendance at classes, academic performance at the lowest level acceptable on projects and assignments, reckless sexual activities, reckless alcohol consumption, and unethical sports fan activities. At the same time there were thousands of diligent motivated students who had to be well aware of the alternate activities but who chose to maximize their college experience. I thought the administration and faculty did a reasonably good job of promoting and supporting the latter while dealing responsibly and humanely with irresponsible student behaviors by the former group. In this free society graduates from high school are capable of making adult decisions and are allowed to do so, and when they make poor decisions they are held to account for them, and become responsible for their own behaviors, just like the rest of us. Good decisions and industrious academic pursuits yield admissions to graduate schools and employment opportunities. These life lessons were and still are on offer and in public view on campuses everywhere.

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http://www.texastech.edu/board-of-regents/march-2015/facilities-presentation.pdf This is a presentation to the March 2015 meeting of the Texas Tech University System Board of Regents by Michael Molina vice chancellor for facilities construction and planning. You will see drawings and photographs of proposed and recent art installations.

Arts History Update for early July 2015

1 Jul

Arts History Update for early July 2015 by David Cummins

Denison Dam (1943) on the Red River creates Lake Texoma, a very large reservoir. When the lake is full as it currently is, the US Army Corps of Engineers opens sluices or floodgates at the bottom of the dam, and that creates on the surface of the lake one or more vortexes or swirling holes in the surface water that direct water down to the bottom of the lake and dam where it is sluiced through downstream of the dam. http://finance.yahoo.com/news/giant-hole-draining-lake-bathtub-184500162.html

The entire area where this vortex effect takes place is off limits to boats and people, and is marked off with buoys and signs, as it would be disastrous if a boat or person were sucked into and under the surface of the lake.

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The Architecture League of New York, Thirty Years of Emerging Voices: Idea, Form, Resonance (Princeton Architectural Press July 7, 2015) https://www.papress.com/html/book.details.page.tpl?isbn=9781616891978 304 pages $55 by publisher $41.25 hardcover at Amazon.com

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At its triennial general convention on June 27, 2015 the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America elected Bishop Michael Curry, Bishop of North Carolina, as its next Presiding Bishop or primate within the Anglican Communion and chief executive of the nation’s Episcopal Church. He will take office on November 1, 2015 succeeding Presiding Bishop Katharine Jefferts-Schori who was the first female primate in the Anglican Communion. Bishop Curry is the first African-American presiding bishop. http://episcopaldigitalnetwork.com/ens/2015/06/27/north-carolina-bishop-michael-curry-elected-as-27th-presiding-bishop/ He will serve a nine year term of office.

Jefferts-Schori’s election by the House of Bishops confirmed by the House of Deputies in 2006 shocked many in the United States, and many will be shocked by Bishop Curry’s election in 2015, but liberalism persists and thrives in America and around the world, the best person at the present time for the particular position being chosen by open hearts and minds.

This of course is not the “liberalism” spoken of recklessly in political rhetoric by manipulators of the electoral process seeking and maintaining power and authority over others, mostly for their own well-being and prosperity.

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A patriotic concert God Shed His Grace on Thee: An American Festival will occur Thursday July 2 at 6:30 pm performed by First United Methodist Church Chancel Choir and Westwinds Brass Band at First United Methodist Church 1411 Broadway Street downtown. A free event followed by hot dogs and ice cream in the parlor.

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Pre-historic Indian peoples in the Panhandle of Texas

From the New Mexico border east to Tascosa are two “pueblo” ruins south of the Canadian River. Tascosa and Old Tascosa are on the south bank of the Canadian. Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument near Fritch Texas is on the south bank of Lake Meredith and ruins of an ancient Indian culture are there. Alibates Ruin # 28 is identified at Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum in Canyon Texas. Antelope Creek enters the Canadian River from the south a mile east and downstream of Sanford Dam that creates Lake Meredith. That area is east of Fritch and was explored by Floyd V. Studer during his 1930s excavations http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/villagers/research/culture.html and includes Antelope Creek Ruin # 22 and # 32 that are preserved at Panhandle Plains Historical Museum. http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/villagers/research/antelope.html The ruins are permanent structures for people who were not nomadic but they lack characteristics of the pueblo culture in northern New Mexico.

North of the Canadian River in southeast Ochiltree Country is The Buried City ancient Indian ruins of a plains culture that is clearly not pueblo, on Wolf Creek not far from Wolf Creek County Park. https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bbb08 and that site is still subject to occasional archeology digging http://tps.cr.nps.gov/pad/buriedcty.cfm see also http://www.perryton.com/city.htm supported in part by the current owner of the land Kirk Courson. Carbon dating indicates the habitations were present from 1100 CE to 1500 CE.

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Variations (2015) by Aaron Stephan is a public art installation across 9th Street on the north side at Indiana Avenue on the Texas Tech campus from the new Bayer Crop Science laboratories and greenhouses building formally named Bayer Crop Science Seeds Innovation Center Research & Development http://www.texastech.edu/stories/15-06-public-art-lights-texas-tech-campus.php The brushed aluminum poles in various shapes and contortions will sway in the wind and be particularly interesting at dusk and after dark since led lighting is imbedded in the poles.

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University of Texas at Austin is opening a medical school which they are calling Dell Medical School and Travis County taxpayers are paying $35 M per year for it and related programs. http://www.statesman.com/news/news/uts-dell-medical-school-receives-accreditation-beg/nmnhX/ Seton Health Care will operate four teaching hospitals for training of medical students enrolled at Dell Medical School. They are Dell Children’s Medical Center of Central Texas, University Medical Center Brackenridge to be replaced in 2017 by Dell Seton Medical Center at the University of Texas, Seton Medical Center Austin [the largest hospital in the area], and Seton Shoal Creek Hospital http://www.seton.net/about_seton/

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Clinton Correctional Facility is a New York State maximum security prison in the Village of Dannemora in northern New York’s Adirondack Mountains 15 miles west of Plattsburgh New York on Lake Champlain.

On June 6, 2015 inmates Richard Matt and David Sweat, both serving sentences for murder, escaped from the prison. Two prison employees, Joyce Mitchell and Gene Palmer, were charged with aiding the escape. On June 26, 2015 inmate Richard Matt was shot and killed by a Vermont Border Patrol Agent in the town of Malone New York. Two days later inmate David Sweat was shot by a New York State Trooper and captured near Constable New York just two miles from the border with Quebec Canada. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/29/nyregion/second-new-york-prison-escapee-shot.html?_r=0 Malone and Constable are at a lower elevation in the Saint Lawrence River Valley so the inmates were leaving the mountains and heading toward the River Valley and another country, smart choices for guys on the lam.

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Putting On The Dog: Dogs Without Borders is a photographic exhibition at Texas Tech University International Cultural Center through August 25, 2015. The opening reception is Friday July 10 from 5:00 – 6:30 pm. During the reception there will be two showings of a 30 minute animated film by Paul and Sandra Fierlinger animation filmmakers Still Life With Animated Dogs (2001) that won a Peabody Award in 2002, in the ICC Auditorium at 5:30 and again at 6:00 pm. Free event. Philadelphia newspaper review of the film is here http://citypaper.net/articles/2002-05-16/screen.shtml as shown on PBS-TV http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/animateddogs/story.html bio of the Fierlingers is here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Fierlinger that tells the story of how they became AR&T Associates Inc. animated films in a Philadelphia suburb and indicates much of their work for television.

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Arts History Update for late June 2015

24 Jun

Arts History Update for late June 2015 by David Cummins

Want to learn more about embroidery and quilting designs from a notable designer? Sue Spargo will provide a lecture and trunk show at Texas Tech University Museum Jones Auditorium on Wednesday July 1, 2015 at 7:00 pm a free event, reservations requested at 742-2443 http://www.suespargo.com

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A series of beautiful photographs of public art on the Texas Tech University campus is at this website http://www.ttuhub.net/2015/04/a-guide-to-public-art-on-the-texas-tech-campus/

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Short documentary film by Economist Magazine on civilian use of drones http://www.economist.com/content/future-works-drones and on drugs being grown for commercial use http://www.economist.com/content/global-compass-drugs-war-or-store?cid1=e/exedm/email/top/DrugsFILMpage/20150430-00:00am/owned/Drugs/Economist-Films/Films-/none/none/Global/none

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Senior News in Waco Texas, publisher Dan McNeil, is a local monthly newsprint magazine that is available free at supermarkets and other locations. It now operates an updated website with the same but more timely information in it http://seniorific.com but you can still read the print edition online at http://seniorific.com/epub/westtx/lubbock/

Don’t confuse that monthly newsprint magazine with Golden Gazette by Word Publications, 1310 Avenue Q, Lubbock that is also free at supermarkets and other locations and is also online http://www.wordpub.com/docs/gazette_june2015.pdf where you can read the June 2015 issue. Mary Ann Edwards is the editor succeeding the recently retired Jo Stone. It also publishes The Texas Tech Word magazine in print and online at http://texastechword.com

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Illuminance is the biennial juried photography exhibition at Buddy Holly Center Fine Arts Gallery from Friday June 26 – Saturday August 15 on which last day there will be a closing reception and gallery talk by juror Rixon Reed at 3:00 pm. Photographer Naomi Hill will conduct a workshop Art of the Cyanotype on Saturday July 11 from 11:00 am – 1:00 pm $15 per person children youth and adults register by July 7. http://www.freestylephoto.biz/alternative-process/cyanotype

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June 20 – September 27, 2015 at the Armand Hammer Museum in Los Angeles at 10899 Wilshire Boulevard is a solo exhibition by Mark Bradford titled Scorched Earth, http://hammer.ucla.edu/exhibitions/2015/mark-bradford-scorched-earth/ twelve new paintings including the lobby mural. Paintings in his case means mixed media including scrap raw materials coaxed and teased into a painting outcome but clearly three dimensional pieces even if set on a canvas. Some pieces like Bell Tower (2014) suspended over the security screening area at Tom Bradley Los Angeles International Airport international terminal, are best described as abstract-painted sculpture. http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/arts/miranda/la-ca-cam-mark-bradford-scorched-earth-hammer-20150621-column.html#page=1 A recent magazine article is Calvin Tompkins, What Else Can Art Do: The many layers of Mark Bradford’s work, The New Yorker, June 22, 2105 at pages 28-34 http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/06/22/what-else-can-art-do

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For those Microsoft Windows Operating System users who have reserved the free upgrade, Windows 10 Operating System will automatically download and install on your computer on July 29, 2015. That includes removal of the previous Operating System. Here is a caution. When there’s a massive launch of a new Operating System, you can expect glitches. One thing that can happen is that old software programs and files don’t transfer over but are gone! Thus, either back-up your important software programs and files before July 29 or don’t upgrade when it’s first available. Just bide your time while glitches are all worked out, and then upgrade later within the first year opportunity.

Purchasing a back-up system and learning how to retrieve backed up programs and files is an option, but many people don’t want to spend lots of time and energy on something that isn’t done routinely or repetitively. Some people purchase and install a back up system and then when retrieval is needed, call the expert and have him/her/it retrieve and install selected backed up programs and files. That technique works well when a brand new computer is purchased. Important programs and files on the back up device are retrieved and installed on the new computer immediately after it’s set up, so the end result is that the new computer has “all the right stuff” in it and on it and is immediately useful and usable with ease. This is old-fashioned common sense blended with contemporary high-technology capacities to yield something that works well for us humans.

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Prosperity Bank 2015 Catfish Fry is Thursday June 25 on the grounds of the bank at 1501 Avenue Q, Lubbock 5:30 – 8:30 pm $15 at the gate $10 in advance at all bank locations. The benefits go to South Plains Food Bank https://www.facebook.com/ProsperityBankUSA?fref=nf that is hoping to open its new building in late Fall or early Winter. http://lubbockonline.com/life/2014-04-29/ceremonies-launch-south-plains-food-bank-construction#.VYCsC67SleN That is the J.T. and Margaret Talkington Distribution Center at East 56th Street and Martin Luther King, Jr Boulevard.

This Catfish Fry is part of the Summer of Sharing Food Drive May 25 – June 30, 2015 https://www.spfb.org/tours-and-events

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Railroad History in South Plains of northwest Texas

Texas & Pacific Railway Co chartered in 1871 to build a railroad from Marshall Texas to San Diego California, but it met the Southern Pacific at Sierra Blanca Texas south of El Paso in 1881 and ended there. The line connected east Texas with the Dallas, Fort Worth, Abilene, Permian Basin and trans-Pecos River country. http://www.texaspacificrailway.org/news/abilene-reporter-news-west-texas-towns-lived-and-died-by-the-railroad-2.html

Fort Worth and Denver City Railway Co, Fort Worth Texas chartered June 6, 1873 opened a line from Fort Worth to Hodge Junction 1881 Wichita Falls 1882 Harrold 1885 Chilicothe 1886 Childress and Amarillo by 1887 and Texline 1888 and Clayton New Mexico connecting with a line to Denver Colorado https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Worth_and_Denver_Railway Buttel Railroad Museum (2000) Amarillo Texas https://www.flickr.com/photos/barbarabrannon/sets/72157633389942131/ displays the rolling stock and equipment of yesteryear. Amarillo Railroad Museum http://amarillorailmuseum.com also displays artifacts. Texas Historical Commission http://www.thc.state.tx.us/public/upload/publications/plains.pdf And here is a map of the line TXZZ0031_a.jpg

Panhandle and Santa Fe Railway Co, Amarillo Texas chartered November 11, 1886 https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/eqp03 extended south from Canyon Texas to Plainview in 1907 and to Lubbock in 1910 where it connected with the Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe line from Sweetwater to Slaton http://atsfrr.net/resources/burton/plains.htm into which it morphed. The Santa Fe line at the Caprock stopped at Southland, Slaton, Burris, Lubbock, Shallowater, Anton Littlefield, Sudan, Mill, Tolk, Muleshoe, Lariat, Farwell and finally Texico New Mexico.

South Plains and Santa Fe Railway Co, headquartered in Lubbock http://texaslastfrontier.com/railroad/railroad-history/ chartered August 17, 1916 when it acquired the Crosbyton-South Plains line, in 1925 the Doud-Bledsoe line, and in 1948 merged into Panhandle & Santa Fe Railway Co.

Fort Worth and Denver South Plains Railway Co chartered March 6, 1925 built a line from Estelline to Plainview and Dimmitt and a branch south from Silverton to Lubbock in 1928. The current Buddy Holly Center is located in a former Fort Worth and Denver South Plains Railway depot giving rise to the area in Lubbock being called the Depot Entertainment District. https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/eqf04 an earlier donation of trackage and right of way led to a 1993 opening of the Caprock Canyons State Park & Trailway from Estelline Texas to South Plains Texas north of Floydada http://tpwd.texas.gov/state-parks/caprock-canyons it’s now a hiking, bicycling, and equestrian trail about 64 miles in length that passes through Clarity Tunnel. The Park opened in 1982 and is the official home of the Texas State Bison Herd preserved from those few that Molly Goodnight and her husband Charles saved on their Goodnight Ranch north of the Park and east of Claude Texas.

Quanah, Acme and Pacific Railway Co extended after 1902 from the Red River near Quanah to Floydada Texas, as a connective extension of the St Louis – San Francisco Railway https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quanah,_Acme_and_Pacific_Railway

What did this railroad network in the Panhandle South Plains Rolling Plains mean for commerce? Nearly everything, but as an example Harris F. Underwood 1864-1929 and his son Arch S. Underwood 1892-1972 ran a cotton warehouse and cotton compress business in this area and had warehouses on the railroad sidings at Bovina, Dimmitt, Sudan, Whiteface, Seagraves, O’Donnell, Lubbock, Abernathy, Hart, Lockney, Floydada, Roaring Springs, Paducah, and Quitaque, and had compresses near sidings at Lamesa, Tahoka, Lubbock, Ralls, Plainview, Littlefield, Childress and Quanah. That’s how harvested cotton gets to market. Museum of the American Railroad, Frisco Texas http://www.museumoftheamericanrailroad.org 

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Corner House Concerts produced by Roger Landes occurred February 21, 2015 with Kim Treiber and Chipper Thompson performing, and June 16, 2015 with Kevin Burke performing, at J & B Coffee 2701 26th Street back room [seats 50 but that’s pretty tight together sitting] https://www.facebook.com/cornerhouseconcerts and http://www.jandbcoffeeco.com/main/meeting-space/ low price for admission $15 advance ticket $20 admission at the door on the concert evening.

What kind of music can be heard at these concerts? A clue is that Roger W. Landes http://rogerlandes.com is a bouzouki, mandolin and guitar player of Celtic folk music. He is employed as an instructor at Texas Tech School of Music performing with the Vernacular Music Center and plays gigs around the Southwest United States. He has a CD recording titled House to House (Foxglove 2004) with Randal Bays on fiddle Roger Landes on bouzouki.

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Jesus Moroles, Texas sculptor, died in an automobile collision recently. His monumental stone pieces on the Texas Tech University campus are now a part of his legacy. Lapstrake (2005) an eastern approach to Experimental Sciences Building, Square Spiral Arch (2007) a western approach to Experimental Sciences Building, and Windmill (2013) near the roaming bronze longhorn steers at entrance to National Ranching Heritage Center http://www.texastech.edu/stories/15-06-ttu-system-remembers-texas-artist.php

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The Waggoner Ranch is for sale with an asking price of $725 million http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3087774/America-s-biggest-ranch-larger-LONDON-goes-sale-713million-Texas.html this is an excellent summary of events since Dan Waggoner’s son W.T. William Thomas ”Tom” Waggoner started a ranch farther west from that of his father in the early 20th century, and the photographs and videos are savable.

In a previous Arts History Update I wrote

Electra Waggoner Biggs, Riding Into the Sunset (1947) is a bronze statuary of Will Rogers on his horse Soapsuds at the entrance to Will Rogers Memorial Center including an Auditorium & Coliseum in Forth Worth Texas and four slightly smaller versions are at Amon Carter Museum of American Art in Forth Worth, Will Rogers Memorial Museum and Home of Will Rogers in Claremore Oklahoma, Texas Tech University Memorial Circle (1949) and at Hilton Anatole Hotel (1989) in Dallas. The sculpture was completed in 1939 but world events took over the process of building the coliseum in Fort Worth.

Lineage of The Waggoner Ranch and its heirs:

1. Daniel Waggoner (1828-1902) cattle baron, based on a ranch near Decatur Texas in Wise County since leaving Hopkins County in 1853 with 229 head of cattle after his father Solomon’s death in 1849 and his wife Nancy’s death in childbirth in 1853.

2. son W.T. William Thomas “Tom” or “Pappy” Waggoner, (1852-1934) cattleman and horseman who bred thoroughbred horses and built Arlington Downs racetrack in Arlington Texas in the 1930s in part from oil discovered on the ranch, founded the Waggoner Ranch on and near the Little Wichita River extending to above the Wichita River and west into Clay County, Wichita County, Wilbarger County and Baylor County

3. daughter of W.T. Waggoner was Electra Waggoner Wharton 1882-1925 for whom the town of Electra was named in 1907 it formerly being called Beaver Creek, and son Guy Waggoner 1883-1950 and son E. Paul Waggoner, 1889-1967 quarter horse breeder and western lore promoter,

4. Electra Waggoner Biggs 1912-2001 was the daughter of E. Paul Waggoner and she died at age 88 in a Vernon Texas hospital near her family home Santa Rosa Roundup Ranch within the Waggoner Ranch. She became a sculptor and completed Riding Into the Sunset in 1939 but it was installed in 1947 due to world events delaying and displacing construction of the Will Rogers Memorial Auditorium and Coliseum in Forth Worth.

http://www.waggonerranch.com/MrsBiggsArtTribute.htm shows some of her commissioned sculpture.

She was a beautiful and stately woman for whom the Buick Electra car was named as well as the Lockheed Electra airplane.

5. Electra’s daughters are Helen Biggs Willingham (Mrs. Gene Willingham) who still lives on the ranch home and Electra Biggs Moulder (Mrs. William Moulder) of Jacksonville Florida.

The shares in the W.T. Waggoner Estate (a business trust from 1923) that operates the Waggoner Ranch are roughly owned 50% by Wharton heirs and 50% by Biggs heirs. http://www.texasmonthly.com/content/showdown-waggoner-ranch

Waggoner Ranch http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/apw01

The Waggoner Commissary erected in the 1870s on the ranch near Electra Texas was preserved and moved to the National Ranching Heritage Center in Lubbock Texas in its Proctor Park section http://nrhc.ttu.edu/structures/waggoner-commissary/

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Post City Crafters Days is the first Saturday of each month in historic Main Street in downtown Post Texas, next month on July 4, 2015, so it may be a Fourth of July day trip location. All day long event http://texasplainstrail.com/events/post-city-crafters-days

On June 27-28, 2015 is Texas Last Frontier Heritage Celebration at Morton Texas http://texasplainstrail.com/events/morton-annual-texas-last-frontier-heritage-celebration at which one could get in a bit smaller parade experience as a preparation for the annual Fourth of July Parade at Mackenzie Park in Lubbock this year http://texasplainstrail.com/events/morton-annual-texas-last-frontier-heritage-celebration detailed list of activities http://texasplainstrail.com/public/upload/texasplainstrail_com/files/Event%20Calendar-Cochran%20County-June%2026-28%202015.pdf

Schedule for the Lubbock Fourth of July festivities http://www.broadwayfestivals.com/events/

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C.B. Stubblefield [Stubb’s BBQ] of Lubbock Texas never got rich, but his successors selling his famed barbeque sauce were just paid $100 million to hand it over and walk away http://www.statesman.com/news/business/austin-based-maker-of-stubbs-sauces-sold-to-food-i/nmj9Q/ One of those successors is the son of O.V. and Fran Scott, long-time Lubbock residents who moved to Austin late in life. Fran died earlier this year. http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/lubbockonline/obituary.aspx?pid=174497373

The condiment company McCormick & Co of Maryland will be purveying the sauces now.

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Arts History Update for mid June 2015

12 Jun

Arts History Update for mid June 2015 by David Cummins

Dean Carol Edwards of the College of Visual & Performing Arts is leaving Texas Tech University after a marvelous eight year deanship that propelled the School of Music, School of Art, and soon to be School of Theatre and Dance to new heights and many accomplishments. Big shoes for Tech to fill but that’s just the challenge it wants and needs. Edwards will be chief executive officer and dean at a satellite / branch of Florida State University at Panama City Florida. Florida State University at Tallahassee was the locus for her Ph.D. so her alma mater came calling, and who can resist that? http://today.ttu.edu/posts/2015/05/visual-performing-arts-dean-announces-resignation

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THE WOMEN WHO SHAPED TEXAS TECH 

March 2015 through September 2015

The second annual “Women Who Shaped Texas Tech” exhibit is on display in the Coronelli Rotunda Gallery of the Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library at Texas Tech University. The exhibit, as part of Women’s History Month, honors those who have made lasting impressions on the University’s history.

Featured this year are Lucille S. Graves, the first African-American student enrolled at Texas Tech; Ophelia Powell-Malone, the first African-American student to graduate with a bachelor’s degree; Faye Bumpass, a nationally known author of bilingual education textbooks who became one of the first female Horn Professors at Texas Tech; Mary Jeanne van Appledorn, a Horn Professor who taught at Tech for more than 50 years; and Mina Wolf Lamb, who helped established the federally funded Women, Infants and Children (WIC) supplemental food program at the Lubbock Children’s Health Clinic where she had volunteered for 18 years as a teacher of nutrition.

Through hard work and forward thinking, the women featured in this exhibit helped Texas Tech become and remain an institution dedicated to providing an excellent education for women.

40th ANNUAL WESTERN FEDERATION OF WATERCOLOR SOCIETIES EXHIBITION
April 16 – July 15, 2015
Galleries 2 & 3 Texas Tech Museum

The annual juried exhibition of the Western Federation of Watercolor Societies presents work from artists who are members of at least one of twelve regional watercolor societies, including the Arizona Watercolor Association, Colorado Watercolor Society, Idaho Watercolor Society, Nevada Watercolor Society, San Diego Watercolor Society, Southern Arizona Watercolor Guild, Southwestern Watercolor Society, Texas Watercolor Society, Utah Watercolor Society, Watercolor Society of Oregon, and the West Texas Watercolor Society. The Western Federation was founded in 1974 and held its first show in 1976.

The 2015 juror, Linda Baker, selected works by ninety-six artists from among a combined membership in the Western Federation of Watercolor Societies of more than 5,000 artists. The works are in a variety of water-based media including, for example, casein, gouache, tempera, acrylic and transparent watercolor.

This exhibition has been organized by the West Texas Watercolor Society and has been made possible in part through a grant from the city of Lubbock as recommended by Civic Lubbock, Inc. The project is also supported in part by a grant from the Texas Commission on the Arts.

PEACHTREE GALLERY
Thursday – Saturday 12:00 PM – 6:00 PM
901 17th Street 806.470.9996
http://peachtreegallerylubbock.com/

Peachtree Gallery is a small gallery located in the historic downtown of Lubbock, Texas.

Artists
David Bondt, Jordan Brown, Stacy Brunsen, Micah Cash, Jason Cytacki, Jimmy Dyer, Betsy Edwards, John Franklin, Dolan Geiman, Evan Hawley, Kathy Hinson, Ronda Ivy, Dyan Newton, Sarah Otts, Liz Potter, Nick Ryan, Lorelei Skizenta, Alyssa Underwood, Cecelia Weldon.

Peachtree Gallery, established in June 2013, is a small commercial art gallery located in the historic downtown Depot District in Lubbock, Texas.  The mission of our space is a dedication to creating a sense of welcome and invitation in a fine art gallery setting.  It is meant to be an establishment where both artist and collector feels represented, well cared for, and, most importantly to our vision, a place where both parties feel at home and understood.   Our dream is to be space that inspires and encourages understanding and growth in the Lubbock art community.

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Rinker Buck, The Oregon Trail: A New American Journey (Simon & Schuster June 30, 2015 hardcover August 18, 2015 e-book) at 464 pages is an account of the author’s hitching up a mule team to a wagon and following the Trail from east of Fort Leavenworth Kansas to Baker City Oregon. http://www.nps.gov/oreg/planyourvisit/site2.htm Because it’s not all open country today, that must have been a challenge. Don’t you imagine how that wagon looked coming through midwest and western towns and rural roadways? And how many teenage boys considered packing their toothbrush and Swiss Army knife and curling up under the tarp in the wagon as a stowaway? Amazon.com releases on June 30 hardcover $20.52 e-book releases August 18 $15. http://www.cccarto.com/oregontrail/ The first substantial and respected account of that journey is

Francis Parkman, The Oregon Trail: Sketches of Prairie and Rocky Mountain Life (A. L. Burt Co 1847 and many revised and later editions) free online at Project Gutenberg https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1015/1015-h/1015-h.htm or at Lubbock Public Library 978.02 P2490 or Texas Tech Library F592.P24 (1910 edition) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Oregon_Trail:_Sketches_of_Prairie_and_Rocky-Mountain_Life

Once a 4-6 month journey through the future states of Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho and Oregon over 2,000 miles, by 1841-1869 it was the main passage route west, then the Union Pacific Railroad opened in 1869, and the Northern Pacific Railroad opened in 1883 to Portland Oregon, and use of the Trail disappeared into history.

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Richard Schulman, Portraits of the New Architecture 2 (Assouline Publishing 2015) hardcover 170 pages http://archidose.blogspot.com/2015/06/book-review-portraits-of-new.html is a thrilling coffee table book to go alongside his initial book by this title in 2004. Schulman is a respected photographer. http://www.assouline.com/portraits-of-new-architecture-2.html

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Attended a Thursday evening event Junior’s Listening Room at Caprock Winery http://www.caprockwinery.com/events/Junior-s-Listening-Room-where-Music-meets-Wine1111 and can recommend it to you. Junior Vasquez agreed with the Winery to host a two hour musical event each Thursday evening, free to the public due to corporate sponsors for the series, and the Winery offers discounted prices on a good selection of glasses and bottles of wine, and one or more food trucks is on site for folks to eat in the Summer evening on the patio with a glass of vino in hand. The event is 6:00 – 9:00 pm, the food trucks dispense from 6:00 – 8:00 pm and the music is 7:00 – 9:00 pm. The music is performed indoors in the handsome barrel room, air conditioned comfort. The eating is done in the main outdoor patio or a side patio or the Winery lobby. I noticed that many people enjoyed the patio wine and dine so much that they never quite got to the barrel room for the music. Summer evenings are tantalizingly delicious. Junior was off on a gig somewhere so Curtis Peoples hosted the musical event and introduced Jerry Serrano for a 45 minute set and then Danny Cadra for another 45 minute set.

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Teresita Fernandez, Cuban-American refractory metals artist, has a temporary art installation in Madison Square Park New York City titled Fata Morgana (2015) that means an optical phenomenon experienced as a narrow band of light above the horizon http://www.cbsnews.com/pictures/artist-teresita-fernandez/28/ She is a Brooklyn based artist https://www.artsy.net/artist/teresita-fernandez The piece at Madison Square Park is up April 30, 2015 – January 10, 2016 and then it comes down, an overhead refractive steel and mirrors cutout above some of the 50,000 people who traverse the square and park daily. The interaction of fragmented and refracted light and the moving people beneath it is fascinating.

Madison Square Park in Manhattan is named for James Madison the fourth president of the United States and a major co-author of the U.S. Constitution. The Park is bounded by 5th Avenue on the west, a diagonal by Broadway, on the north by East 26th Street, on the south by East 23rd Street, on the east by Madison Avenue. The Flatiron Building is immediately to the southwest and gives rise to the Flatiron District name for the area. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/07/arts/design/the-glow-coming-to-madison-square.html?_r=0

http://www.lehmannmaupin.com/artists/teresita-fernndez/press/708#17

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Here is a bit of American colonial history from the British point of view.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_North,_Lord_North Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford was prime minister of the United Kingdom 1770-1782.

Most of North’s government was focused first on the growing problems with the American colonies and later on conducting the American War of Independence thatbroke out in 1775, beginning with the Battle of Lexington. Following the Boston Tea Partyin 1773 Lord North proposed a number of legislative measures that were supposed to punish the Bostonians. These measures were known as the Coercive Acts in Great Britain, while dubbed the Intolerable Actsin the colonies. By shutting down the Boston government and cutting off trade, he hoped it would keep the peace and dispirit the rebellious colonists. Instead, the acts further inflamed Massachusetts and the other colonies, eventually resulting in open war.

North deferred overall strategy of the war to his key subordinates Lord George Germainand the Earl of Sandwich. Despite a series of victories and the capture of New York and Philadelphiathe British were unable to secure a decisive victory. In 1778 the French allied themselves with the American rebels, and Spain joined the war in 1779 as an ally of France, followed by the Dutch Republicin 1780. The British found themselves fighting a global war on four continents without a single ally.

After 1778 the British switched the focus of their efforts to the defense of the West Indies, as its sugar wealth made that area much more immediately valuable to Great Britain than the thirteen colonies. In 1779 Great Britain was faced with the prospect of a major Franco-Spanish invasion but the Armada of 1779 was ultimately a failure. Several peace initiatives fell through, and an attempt by Richard Cumberland to negotiate a separate peace with Spain ended in frustration. The country’s problems were added to by the First League of Armed Neutrality, which was formed to counter the British blockade strategy, and threatened British naval supplies from the Baltic Sea. With severe manpower shortages, North’s government passed an act abandoning previous statutes placing restrictions on Catholics serving in the military. This provoked an upsurge of anti-Catholic feelings and the formation of the Protestant Association leading to the Gordon Riots in London in June 1780. For around a week the city was controlled by a mob until the military was called out and martial law was imposed. In spite of these problems Great Britain’s fortunes in the war in America had temporarily improved, following the failure of a Franco-American attack on Newport and the prosecution of a southern strategy that saw Great Britain capture the port of Charleston South Carolina and its garrison.

During 1780 and 1781 the North government gained strength in the House of Commons. In an attempt to end the war he proposed the Conciliation Plan, in which he promised that Great Britain would eliminate all disagreeable acts if the colonies ended the war. The colonies rejected the plan, as their goal had become full independence.
North holds the dubious distinction of being the first British Prime Minister to be forced out of office by a motion of no confidence, resigning on March 20, 1782 on account of the British defeat at Yorktown Virginia the year before.
This short but accurate precis proves once again that context is significant in all human events, especially an uprising rebellion or revolution, and that the perspective of some people on the ground can be quite limited and un-representative of the perspectives of many other people. What is sad is that some historians later on will consciously ignore so many other perspectives than the one they choose to present in their history manuscript, and thereby misrepresent the event about which they speak. Perhaps I should have said, misrepresent the totality of the event about which they speak.
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The Lubbock Area Texas Tech Art Alumni Exhibition features works by Texas Tech University School of Art alumni who continue their artistic practice in the West Texas region. It showcases a diverse range of media and content while bringing together a group of artists at various stages in their post-Texas Tech careers. The exhibition will be on view from Saturday, June 13th – Saturday, July 25th at the School of Art Building.

Art Building Gallery hours are 8 am to 5 pm Monday through Friday and by appointment on weekends. The Art Building is located at 3010 18th Street near the corner of 18th Street and Flint Avenue. On Monday through Friday paid parking is available to the public on the fourth floor of the Flint Avenue Parking Facility. Parking is free on weekends. Admission is free. www.landmarkarts.org

The opening reception at which some of the artists may be present is Saturday June 13, 2015 from 6:00 – 9:00 pm.

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New plays read [not acted or performed, but read] by Texas Tech University theatre students at the Summer Westwind Performance Laboratories occur at 7:00 pm at the Maedgen Laboratory Theatre west entrance 2812 18th Street and admission is free on Friday June 12 Sometimes Fire by Eva Suter, Friday June 19 Rosebud by Brian Bauman, and Friday June 26 The Dum Dums by Joshua Conkel. The public is invited.

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Short independently produced films, twenty-five of them, will be broadcast TV-PBS June 15 – July 17 but you may watch them online at PBS Online Film Festival anytime you wish http://www.pbs.org/filmfestival/home/

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Saturday June 13 from 5:00 – 7:00 pm is the sixth annual Butterfly and Ladybug Release at Lubbock Garden & Arts Center 4215 University Avenue co-hosted by Lubbock Memorial Arboretum and Hodges Community Center. www.lubbockgac.org phone for more information 806-767-3724. All ages enjoy this free event.

The Trail of the Living Water in the Llano Estacado

7 Jun

The Trail of the Living Water in the Llano Estacado of the Panhandle South Plains of northwest Texas by David Cummins for Questers May 21, 2015

Major rivers of Texas

Sabine River 360 miles in Texas, Neches River 416 miles, Trinity River 710 miles, Brazos River 840 miles, Colorado River 600 miles, Pecos River 926 miles most in New Mexico, Rio Grande River 1,250 miles, Canadian River 200 miles in Texas, Red River 600 miles in Texas.

Colorado River of Texas http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colorado_River_(Texas) rises in southeast Dawson County near the hamlet of Midway and flows east into south Borden County and east into south Scurry County where the first dam on the Colorado creates a reservoir that is Lake J.B. Thomas that extends west into Borden County, after which the Colorado River flows south into Mitchell County near Colorado City Texas and on southeast toward central Texas and the capital Austin. Where does it rise?

Sulphur Springs Draw leaves New Mexico toward Plains Texas in Yoakum County, then to Wellman Texas in Terry County, then to Welch Texas and Lamesa Texas in Dawson County, then to Gold Creek that flows into the Colorado River in southeast Dawson County.

However, Sulphur Springs Draw continues south and converges with McKenzie Draw, Seminole Draw, Wardswell Draw and Monument Draw [all rising in New Mexico] to form Mustang Draw in Martin County that continues to the southeast and enters Beals Creek in Howard County four miles west of Big Spring Texas that flows east into the Colorado River in south Mitchell County. The next reservoir is Lake E.V. Spence immediately west of the town of Robert Lee Texas.

Thus the watershed basin from which the Colorado River of Texas rises, begins in New Mexico and extends in the Llano Estacado of West Texas through this series of Draws to flow into the Colorado River at two places, southeast Dawson County and south Mitchell County.

Captain Marcy is the man who explored West Texas and the high plains searching for the headwaters of the Canadian (1849) and Red River (1852) and Brazos and Wichita Rivers (1854) including the main fork of the Red River that runs through Palo Duro Canyon. He found the headwaters of the Red River in 1852 and published his findings Randolph Marcy, Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana in the year 1852, Texas Tech University Southwest Collection SPL22.1 M322 R312 (US Gov Doc 1853)

No fewer than 25 items in the Texas Tech Library relate to the explorations of Captain Randolph Marcy in the Southwest, following his service in the War of 1846 with Mexico and preceding his service in the Civil War in 1861. He explored the headwaters of the Canadian and the Red River and the Brazos River so he definitely traversed the South Plains and recorded the experience. His writings were studied by Colonel Ranald Mackenzie during the Red River War of 1871-1875. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Randolph_B._Marcy
Captain Randolph B. Marcy lit out from Fort Smith Arkansas in his 1849 expedition to trace the course of the Canadian River. Today we know it rises in far southern Colorado on the east side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, flows south into New Mexico west of Raton, through a canyon near Springer, and then east across New Mexico forming the northern border of the Llano Estacado through the panhandle of Texas and then across Oklahoma until it empties into the Arkansas River at the Robert S. Kerr Reservoir on the Arkansas River, a total of 906 miles. Marcy traced its course in Oklahoma Territory and in Texas and some of New Mexico Territory and ended his exploration at Santa Fe [thus establishing the Marcy Trail from Fort Smith to Santa Fe] where he resupplied and then lit out across the Llano Estacado on its western border following the Pecos River southward to the edge of the Edwards Plateau at Castle Gap between the present towns of Crane and McCamey on the historic San Antonio-El Paso Road or Southern Emigrant Trail, and then locating the sandhills near Monahans and a large spring at Big Spring before turning north at the easterly escarpment of the Llano Estacado, thus circumnavigating the Llano Estacado and returning to Fort Smith. http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fma43

The Canadian River was known before 1849 due to an expedition by US Army Lieutenants James William Abert and William G. Peck in 1845, and before that by an expedition by Major Stephen Long in 1820 barely making it back to Fort Smith. Long’s harrowing return, including eating the meat of their horses, and report are the source of maps referring to the Llano Estacado and beyond on the high plains as “The Great American Desert”. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Harriman_Long

John Miller Morris, El Llano Estacado: Exploration and Imagination on the High Plains of Texas and New Mexico, 1536-1860 (Texas State Historical Association 1997) Lubbock Public Library 976.48 M876L Texas Tech Library F392.L63 M67

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Captain Randolph B. Marcy US Army Corps of Engineers expedition of 1852 purpose was to trace the Red River of Louisiana to its source or headwaters. He was based at Fort Smith Arkansas but he started this expedition at Cache Creek near present Fort Sill Oklahoma, entered Wheeler County Texas on June 10, camped on June 12 where Fort Elliott was later located at Old Mobeetie, and entered Gray County on June 14. He camped near the present town of Lefors on June 16 at the head of the North Fork of the Red River. Marcy knew the Canadian River was to the north because he had visited it in 1849, so he traveled 25 miles north and found the Canadian, now assured that it was a distinct separate river. He returned south to the North Fork of the Red and traveled farther south to the Salt Fork of the Red River. He found a nearby stream of fresh water and named it McClellan Creek for his deputy George McClellan who would later become his son in-law and a Civil War general. A marker now exists several miles south of Pampa on Texas State Highway SH 70. On July 1 Marcy reached the main fork or Prairie Dog Fork [later named Prairie Dog Town Fork] of the Red River that flows southeast near contemporary Estelline and north of Childress where the Red River begins to form the northern boundary of Texas and southern boundary of Oklahoma, an amazing meandering river that runs from the Texas panhandle 1,222 miles before emptying into the Mississippi River [through the Atchafalaya] navigable below Shreveport Louisiana. http://www.redriverhistorian.com/maps.html
From a West Texas perspective the river system to the south of the Prairie Dog Town Fork of the Red River is the Pease River that flows past contemporary Copper Breaks State Park and the town of Vernon and empties into the Red River. The Roaring Springs Ranch Club is at the springs that is the headwaters of the Pease River http://rsrc.org/ ]. South of that is the Wichita River that flows through Wichita Falls and empties into the Red River.

South of that is the Brazos River system that takes a southern turn and flows through central Texas to the Gulf Coast. South of that is the Colorado River that rises in Dawson County east of Lamesa and in southern Mitchell County and flows southeast into central Texas, the capital at Austin, and on to the Gulf Coast at Matagorda Bay http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/rnc10
Nine years later Captain Marcy would be General Marcy during the Civil War.
Kenneth F. Neighbors, The Marcy-Neighbors Exploration of the Headwaters of the Brazos and Wichita Rivers in 1854 (reprinted in Panhandle Plains Historical Review volume 27 in 1954) $29 and (reprinted 1956) ABE Books very good condition $15. US Army Major Robert S. Neighbors was the United States Supervising Agent for Texas Indian Affairs from 1853. He was murdered at Fort Belknap on September 14, 1859 by Edward Cornett one of many who thought of people like Neighbors as detestable “Indian lovers”. His murder helped the Texas legislature terminate the Indian reservation experiment in Texas and move them in 1859 to Indian Territory next to Oklahoma Territory north of the Red River. Records of the Marcy Expedition of 1852 are displayed at White Deer Land Museum in Pampa Texas http://www.pampamuseum.org/-phs-appreciated.html and here is background for the historical marker referred to above http://pan-tex.net/usr/p/pampa-hist/redriver.htm
The town of Lefors in Gray County and headwaters of the North Fork of the Red River would become famous twenty years after Marcy camped there, when Colonel Ranald Mackenzie successfully led the US Army Fourth Cavalry against Comanche at that site on September 29, 1872 http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fma07
Tierra Blanca = white land, that is the source of the name of the museum, although the town of White Deer on White Deer Creek between Pampa and Panhandle is perhaps the more recent and direct cause for naming the museum, derived from both tierra blanca and a white deer. The town White Deer has a statuary of a white deer right on Main Street US Highway 60.
Tierra Blanca Creek rises in Curry County New Mexico and extends east by Hereford and Umbarger [forming Buffalo Lake at Umbarger Dam (1937) as part of the Tierra Blanca Water Conservation Project and the adjacent Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge] http://www.fws.gov/refuge/Buffalo_Lake/about.html

and where Tierra Blanca Creek joins Palo Duro Creek east of the town of Canyon is the beginning of the Prairie Dog Town Fork of the Red River http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/rbt49 That location is also the founding of the T Anchor Ranch in 1877 by Leigh R. Dyer and his brother Walter Dyer who cut cedar/juniper logs in the canyons and built a two room log cabin with a breezeway between the rooms to use for ranch headquarters. That cabin is now removed (1975) to the lawn north of Panhandle Plains Historical Museum on the campus of West Texas A&M University in Canyon Texas and remains there as a historical artifact in the permanent collection of the Museum. https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/apt01 and here is a picture of the cabin http://panhandleplains.org/pages/tanchor_ranch_house_61.asp It is regarded as the oldest structure in the Panhandle built by Anglo persons.
Intensive agricultural capture of water and drought conditions mean that Buffalo Lake is often dry and the course of the Tierra Blanca Creek is hard to discern west of Hereford to and beyond to the state boundary. We must trust the hydrologists who say it rises in Curry County New Mexico and flows beneath the surface. Las Escarbadas (1886) was a division headquarters building for the XIT Ranch 35 miles west of Hereford astride Tierra Blanca Creek or Draw http://nrhc.ttu.edu/structures/las-escarbadas/ and is now reconstructed (1977) on the site of the National Ranching Heritage Center in Lubbock. http://zisdesign.com/ranch/13.html Las Escarbadas means the scrapings, and refers to comancheros having come to this place where they [having learned from the Indians] scraped at the apparently dry draw and were repeatedly able to yield fresh potable water, so they would set up their trade goods and wait for the Indians.

Tule Creek https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/rbt85 east of Tulia Texas runs into Tule Canyon that runs into Palo Duro Canyon and feeds the Prairie Dog Town Fork of the Red River. It was dammed at Tule Canyon by Mackenzie Dam (1974) in Briscoe County to form Mackenzie Reservoir, an urban water supply for Silverton, Tulia, Floydada and Lockney. It was in Tule Canyon that Colonel Mackenzie had herded the remuda of Comanche horses and slaughtered them in 1874 to destroy the Comanche ability to live independently on the plains. https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/rom20

North Tule Draw and Middle Tule Draw rise in northeastern Castro County and South Tule Draw rises near Nazareth Texas and they converge three miles east of Tulia Texas to form Tule Creek.
Rio Blanco = White River but any river can be masculine Blanco or feminine Blanca. The town of Blanco Texas is white and masculine. Tierra Blanca Creek or White Land Creek is feminine. Rita = small river. Cañon Blanco = Blanco Canyon or White Canyon
Rio Colorado = river of red color, is the source of the name of the Red River, in French “Riviere Rouge” as it was and is called in Louisiana. Note bene: there are several red rivers, this one often referred to as the Red River of the South or Red River of Texas, while the Red River of the North flows north to and through Manitoba to an Arctic Bay at the town of Churchill, and forms the boundary between two states Minnesota and North Dakota.
Within the city limits of Lubbock the parks department has constructed a series of narrow lakes partly within Yellow House Draw and partly within Yellow House Canyon, collectively known as Jim Bertram Canyon Lakes System consisting of six lakes from northwest to southeast Conquistador Lake, Llano Estacado Lake, Comancheria [land of the Comanche] Lake, Vaquero Lake, Canyon Lake, and Dunbar Historical Lake. Vaquero Lake and Canyon Lake lay within Mackenzie Park and it is at Vaquero Lake where Blackwater Draw and Yellowhouse Draw converge. The Canyon Lakes offer scenic views and recreational opportunities, and they also function as an essential part of Lubbock’s wastewater disposal system. First, the city applies treated wastewater to crops at the Lubbock Land Application Site – a 6,000-acre (24 km2) site located east of the City of Lubbock. Here 31 center pivot sprinkler systems are used to irrigate crops with 13 million gallons of treated effluent per day. The soils and sediments of the Land Application Site act as filters as the treated wastewater percolates through the soil. To minimize contamination of the Ogallala Aquifer, groundwater is then pumped from beneath the Land Application Site to Canyon Lakes at Conquistador Lake where the water flows from one lake to the next and eventually into Yellow House Canyon, forming the North Fork of the Double Mountain Fork of the Brazos River.

Double Mountains is about 12 miles west of the town of Aspermont in Stonewall County. The Double Mountain Fork of the Brazos River runs easterly south of Double Mountains, and the Salt Fork of the Brazos River runs easterly north of Double Mountains. Where they converge about 15 miles east of Aspermont is where the Brazos River begins. The Salt Fork rises in the escarpment of the Caprock in south Crosby County. Double Mountains was long a feature on the Dennis Ranch but then Slinging Sammy Baugh purchased it as Double Mountain Ranch. Sammy Baugh http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sammy_Baugh 1914-2008 died in a nursing home in Rotan Texas. He played college football at Texas Christian University and professional football at Washington DC Redskins 1937-1952. The Ranch is now a 20,000 acre cow-calf operation managed by David Baugh, Sammy’s son.

The Clear Fork of the Brazos River http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clear_Fork_Brazos_River rises in Scurry County near Hermleigh and extends a long distance through the Rolling Plains country and merges into the Brazos River south of Graham Texas. Here is a contemporary account of a 32 day canoe trip on the Clear Fork traversing 230 miles from near Fort Phantom Hill north of Abilene Texas ending at Possum Kingdom Lake http://lifeonthebrazosriver.com/32Days.htm Historic Fort Griffin was on the Clear Fork and was the headquarters along with Camp Cooper for Colonel Ranald Mackenzie’s cavalry that conducted the Red River War against the Quahadi [Antelope] Comanche 1871-1874 but some of that war was fought in the Brazos River watershed such as the Battle of Blanco Canyon in 1871. https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/qfb02

Runningwater Draw rises in New Mexico and runs east to Bovina Texas and on east to Plainview where it becomes White River and runs through Blanco Canyon east of Crosbyton and farther southeast where it is dammed to form White River Lake, a recreational opportunity and water supply for the towns of Spur, Post, Ralls and Crosbyton. White River continues and merges into the Salt Fork of the Brazos River that converges with the Double Mountain Fork of the Brazos River in east Stonewall County east of Aspermont Texas to commence the Brazos River on its flow to the Gulf of Mexico. Plainview Country Club is situated in Runningwater Draw http://www.plainviewcc.com/#!club-house/cq4e so the vistas at the golf course are significant for cogitating about early explorations and settlement of the area. Runningwater Draw Park is both west and east of the golf course and there is a bicycling and walking trail in the park. As one drives east southeast from Plainview to Lockney and Floydada on US Highway 70 Runningwater Draw and the White River are to the south.

This is Yellowhouse Draw at Lubbock Lake Landmark Historical Site looking south to Bob Nash Interpretive Center

This is Yellowhouse Draw in west Bailey County

In tracing the meandering Yellowhouse Draw from Lubbock back to its Portales Valley New Mexico outcropping and “Clovis Man” culture beginnings, include Yellow Lake [straddles Hockley and Lamb County], Illusion Lake, Bull Lake [Lamb County], https://books.google.com/books?id=Zko0AQAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA39&lpg=RA1-PA39&dq=monument+lake+bailey+county+texas&source=bl&ots=8xYpDLYXH0&sig=pgIC-I_jjvPczpW74jeT9rgW8ZI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=745aVc3-CeS1sAT99YCQCA&ved=0CDAQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=monument%20lake%20bailey%20county%20texas&f=false Silver Lake [originally known as Laguna Rica or Rich Lagoon][straddles Cochran and Hockley Counties] , Muleshoe National Wildlife Refuge lakes [including Upper Goose Lake, Lower Goose Lake, Upper White Lake, Lower White Lake and Lower Paul’s Lake], Baileyboro Lake, Coyote Lake [all in Bailey County, Texas], and Salt Lake, and Little Salt Lake within Grulla National Wildlife Refuge southeast of Portales New Mexico. Grulla means crane in Spanish.

My Texas Atlas & Gazatteer (6th ed. DeLorme Publishing Co 2005) topographic map supports that. Blackwater Draw is north of all the above skirting the south side of Muleshoe Texas. The Blackwater Draw archeology site where Clovis Man artifacts were discovered is seven miles northeast of the city of Portales and is operated by Eastern New Mexico State University.
La Pista [or Punta] de Agua Vida = The Trail of the Living Water. As Indians used it, then comancheros trading with the Indians used it, then US Army explorations like The Mackenzie Trail used it, and economic caravans like the Fort Sumner Trail from Colorado City Texas to Fort Sumner New Mexico Territory. pista=trail or track punta=tip or noticeable protrusion vida=life agua=water. Result of the reference is to indicate water sources that were not continuous rivers or creeks, but just occasional outcroppings of water like a spring at a specific location, the word punta might be used rather than pista, and either one loosely translated meant The Trail of the Living Water.

Where is Monument Lake in southern Bailey County? Since it’s not on maps it’s likely that a rancher impounded water that intermittently gushed forth out of a spring, so the rancher piped it down into the draw and closed the draw at an eastern end with earthworks, and derived a natural rather than metal water tank for cattle. An outflow pipe would take water when the “lake” was full or unused and inject it back into the draw about five feet deep to percolate down into the subterranean water stream.

https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/hch16 Hockley County. The XIT expanded to include the northern third of Hockley County; meanwhile, other sections of county land were bought by such ranchers as F. G. Oxsheer (1884), David M. Devitt (1885), John Gordon (1886), and the Snyder brothers, Dudley H. and John W. (1885), who sold to Isaac L. Elwood; Ellwood bought the Spade Ranch (1889). C.C. Slaughter acquired county land in 1897. Virtually all of Hockley County was owned by these few men by the 1890s. There were no census returns for Hockley County until 1900, when forty-four people were found living in the area. That year five ranches, encompassing almost 354,000 acres, were reported in the county; about 15,700 cattle were counted in the area that year. No crops were reported.

The first settlers interested in small-scale ranching or farming were homesteaders who established themselves on properties within a strip of land overlooked in the county’s first survey (and consequently not included within the huge ranches). This strip, varying in width from three-fourths of a mile to two miles, extended the entire length of the county’s southern border. Jim Jarrott encouraged settlement there between 1901 and 1903. The Yellow House section of the XIT, consisting of 235,858 acres in Hockley County and three adjacent counties, was sold to George W. Littlefield in 1901; in 1912, Littlefield began selling farm acreage. Despite this limited burst of settlement in the county, diversified economic development and more significant population growth were delayed until the 1920s, when the big ranchers began selling lands for agricultural uses. As late as 1920, only 137 people lived in the county, and only 3,235 acres was classified as improved. Nevertheless, by this time county residents wanted their own county government. The county was organized in 1921; Hockley City won over Ropesville in the county-seat contest.

The settlement of the county accelerated during the 1920s, encouraged by the construction of two branches of the Santa Fe Railroad in the early 1920s-one crossing east to west, the other crossing the southeast corner of the county. Hockley City, where the Littlefield Lands Company sold 464 farm tracts between 1912 and 1920, was renamed Levelland in 1922; the Slaughter heirs began selling farmland in the northwestern part of the country near Whiteface in 1924. Thousands of settlers moved into the county to establish new farms during this period. The number of farms in the county grew from 18 in 1920 to 279 in 1925 and 1,344 in 1929. Most of the newcomers grew cotton. Only eighty-seven acres in the county had been planted in cotton in 1920, but by 1929 cotton culture occupied more than 95,000 acres of county land. Corn culture also expanded quickly during this period, so that by 1929 about 8,300 acres in the county was planted in that staple. In all, cultivated land in the county totaled almost 175,000 acres by 1929. The county’s growing population mirrored this economic expansion: by 1930 the population was 9,298.

The Great Depression of the 1930s produced difficult times in Hockley County, as it did elsewhere. Virtually all of the land previously sold to prospective farmers by the Slaughter heirs, for example, was repossessed in 1930 and 1931. Nevertheless the number of farms in the county grew significantly during this period as the cotton boom continued and more land was put into cultivation. By 1939, 1,506 farms had been established in Hockley County. More than 106,000 acres was planted in cotton that year, and almost another 150,000 in sorghum; cultivated land totaled more than 266,000 acres. The economy also received a boost in 1937, when oil was discovered in the county. A total of almost 68,000 barrels of crude was pumped from county lands in 1938. The population of the county increased by almost 25 per cent during the 1930s, to reach 12,693 by 1940. The economy grew even more rapidly in the 1940s with the expansion of irrigation and the substantial production of oil at Sundown and other fields. The county pumped more than 14,287,000 barrels of crude in 1944 and more than 20,818,000 in 1948; by 1950 there were 3,000 producing oil wells in Hockley County.

Good photos of West Texas venues at https://sites.google.com/site/photosbyleaflet/home/photos-of-the-llano-estacado

Red River Watershed http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_River_of_the_South#/media/File:Redrivermap1.jpg

Yellow House Draw http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_House_Draw and see Mapcarta http://mapcarta.com/23250784

Blackwater Draw http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackwater_Draw

Double Mountain Fork of Brazos River in Fisher County

Cochran County Texas towns are Morton, the county seat, Bledsoe southwest of Morton near the New Mexico border on FM 769, and Whiteface southeast of Morton on SH 114. Morton is at the junction of Texas SH 114 [east-west] and SH 214 [north-south]. Texas Last Frontier Museum (2003) in Morton is located in a former Masonic Temple (1957) building. What is the significance of the phrase Last Frontier and how did Morton gain its name?

Christopher C. Slaughter was a cattle baron whose Lazy S Ranch (1898) 246,699 acres at the end of the 19th century, traversed almost all of Cochran County and more land. George Washington Littlefield purchased 238,585 acres from the XIT Ranch in 1901 and a small portion of it was in Cochran County. Slaughter died in 1919 and his heirs dissolved the cattle company in 1921 into small enough tracts that they could be sold either as family ranches or family farms. Minnie Slaughter Veal, his eldest daughter, hired a land agent to sell some of her property and his name was Morton Smith. He founded the town in 1923 and named it for himself. His land agency office was on the east side of the town square. Morton was incorporated in 1933 and elected its first mayor. Cochran County was one of the last areas in Texas to which a person or family could emigrate and “break out” new land. It was regarded as The Last Frontier. The western boundary of the county is the New Mexico border. Morton population is 2,006 as of the 2010 census, about 61% Hispanic, 33% Anglo, 4% African-American. Cochran County population 1890-zero, 1900-25, 1920-67, 1930-1,963, 1960-6,417, 1970-5,326, and 2010-3,127 so it’s been declining since 1960. http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~txcochra/cochran_county_history.htm

Do not confuse Christopher C. Slaughter’s Lazy S Ranch with his younger brother John B. Slaughter’s U Lazy S Ranch headquartered in Post Texas, Garza County, now owned by the John F. Lott family http://www.ulazysranch.com/about_us.htm Christopher C. Slaughter had four younger brothers John, Will, Pete and Mace all in the cattle business at one time or another. Christopher C. Slaughter was often known as “Lum” or “C.C.” or “Colonel” and can be distinguished in that way. Christopher C. Slaughter’s Long S Ranch (1877) headquartered in Big Spring Texas eventually extended north to the Plainview Texas area and included a ranch near present Lubbock called the Whiteface Ranch. He was known for cattle breeding, introducing short horn cattle to replace the indigenous longhorn and then breeding shorthorns with Hereford cattle to produce the heaviest cattle sent to market from Texas, and the most expensive, making him a fortune.

Christopher C. Slaughter bought his Lazy S Ranch land in 1898 from the dissolving XIT Ranch that included in 1885 nearly the entire Cochran County area, the southern-most division of seven divisions of the XIT called Las Casas Amarillas or The Yellow Houses [a land feature in northwest Hockley County and southwest Lamb County on a bluff above Yellow Lake that looked to Coronado and his men in 1541 as if it were a Spanish apartment house so he named it Las Casas Amarillas] and from 1887 it was a breeding range for the XIT. Thus the Cochran County land was Comanche domain or owned by XIT Ranch or later by Christopher C. Slaughter until it was broken up into tracts for sale in 1921 as “Last Frontier” land for purchase and settlement.

One can keep all these cattlemen of yore straight by consulting William Joseph Elliot, The Spurs (Texas Spur 1939) Texas Tech Library Southwest Collection TEX 51.3 S772E, reprinted W. J. “Scotch Bill” Elliot, The Spurs (Texas State House Press 2009) hardcover $22.25.

W.J. Elliot, a native of Scotland, arrived April 28, 1888 at the headquarters of the Espuela [Spanish for Spur] Land and Cattle Company (1884) to become the ranch bookkeeper. He helped survey the town of Espuela [Spur] (1891) and was manager of the general store and postmaster into 1910. The collection of the Spur-Dickens County Museum at 327 Burlington Avenue, Spur Texas 79370 phone 806-294-5401 tells his story and he tells the story of cattlemen from experiences with them. The short version of the Spur Ranch is that it was never profitable for its English and Scottish investors and was sold in 1906 to an American land syndicate that would gradually reduce the cattle herd, terminating it in 1915. The syndicate sold parcels and tracts of land for family ranches and farms, completing that process by 1938 when author Elliot’s book would be published. William Curry Holden, The Espuela Land and Cattle Company: A Study of a Foreign-Owned Ranch in Texas (Texas State Historical Association 1970) ABE Books good condition $14.41, see also J.W. Williams, The Big Ranch Country (Double Mountain Books Series) (Texas Tech University Press 1999) paperback $15.85

John and Bette Hope of Levelland, Jim Hogue, and Dorothy Barker on behalf of the Hockley and Cochran Counties Historical Commissions, organized and conducted several bus tours in September called The Last Frontier Ranch Heritage Tour, the sixth annual was held on September 25, 2010 http://lubbockonline.com/local-news/2010-09-05/ranch-tour-tells-history-first-ranchers#.VPCek9bDtec I was privileged to attend and enjoyed a meal at the C.C. Slaughter Lazy S Ranch headquarters building three miles southwest of Morton. http://www.co.hockley.tx.us The 2011 tour extended to Zavala Camp [a cowboy camp in Hockley County for partners Fountain Goodlet Oxsheer and C.C. Slaughter], L7 Ranch in Terry County, T Bar Ranch in Lynn County, Double Lakes and Tahoka Lake in Lynn County, and the Meadow and Ropesvile Texas communities. http://lubbockonline.com/local-news/2011-09-10/last-frontier-ranch-heritage-tour-scheduled#.VPIx19bDtec F. G. Oxsheer by 1884 operated a large ranch in Hockley County and was often a partner rather than a competitor with Slaughter.

The Buffalo Soldier Expedition of 1877 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_Soldier_tragedy_of_1877 occurred because, although the Comanche were forced onto the Indian Territory [current Oklahoma] reservation in 1875, there were still an occasional Comanche hunting/raiding party [label depends on one’s perspective] that would leave the reservation and venture out onto the Llano Estacado. Company A of 10th U.S. Army Cavalry under the command of Captain Nicholas Nolan, was searching for such a hunting/raiding party when the troops became lost and disoriented, had used up their water supplies, and were without access to water for 86 hours. Four troopers and one Anglo buffalo hunter died. There are four gravestones in the Morton Memorial Cemetery [north of town on SH 114] for those African-American soldiers John H. Bonds, John T. Gordon, John Isaacs and Isaac Derwin. Deeper into the Cemetery to the west is a stone marker for the Comanche who inhabited this area before Anglo settlement. Paul H. Carlson, The Buffalo Soldier Tragedy of 1877 (Texas A&M University Press 2003) Texas Tech Library E99.C85 C36, ABE Books new $14.79 incl s&h, Lubbock Public Library 976.4 CARL Adult Nonfiction

South of the Last Frontier Museum is the Quanah Parker Trail Arrow (installed March 15, 2013) http://www.quanahparkertrail.com/Quanah_Parker_Trail/Events/Events.html crafted by metal sculptor Charles A. Smith of 290 FM Road 1730 Wilson TX 79381-2304 in his studio in far north Lynn County near the Lubbock County line. Next to the Arrow is Minnie Veal School (1922) named for the eldest daughter of the legendary cattle rancher in the county.

In the south part of Morton is Strickland Park with a man-made pond, the site of an annual Fireworks Display on July 4 conducted by the Volunteer Fire Department. Don’t look for the weekly newspaper The Morton Tribune as it folded about 2011 and the Lubbock Avalanche-Journal newspaper is distributed daily in Morton and throughout the county. Levelland & Hockley County News-Press weekly newspaper http://www.levellandnews.net/62529/2330/1/this-weeks-issuepdf also serves the Morton area. The Morton High School “Indians” play sports with black/gold colors accented by white uniforms.

Leave Morton going south on SH 214 just two miles and west on SH 1169 for a half mile to the historic C.C. Slaughter Lazy S Ranch headquarters building that is rent-able as an event center http://blog.chron.com/txpotomac/2010/01/today-in-texas-history-cattle-barons-death-ignites-family-feud/ The metal Historical Marker says Upwards of 246,669 acres of Cochran and Hockley county lands. Col. C. C. Slaughter – a leader in banking, ranching and religious life in Texas – purchased land 1898-1901. First headquarters was a half-dugout. In 1915, C. C. Slaughter Cattle Company, Inc. brought men from Mexico to build this adobe and concrete quadrangle, on order of a Spanish hacienda. This was one of finest Texas ranch buildings of its era. Seventeen miles south of Morton on SH 214 and then 2.5 miles west on FM 1585 is Old Surratt Territory Ranch where the marker says Once representative of the late-19th century settlement and ranching history of the vast grasslands of the Texas Panhandle. Marshall Surratt (1849-1927), an East Texas native who settled in Waco and became a prominent attorney and district judge, purchased the 53 sections of land in 1885. Although the territory was known by his name, Jude Surratt never lived in Cochran County; he leased the acreage to the Jumbo Cattle Company. Operated by brothers Nick and John Beal and John Beal’s brother-in-law, F. G. Oxsheer, the Jumbo was one of a number of large ranching operations, including those owned by such famous cattlemen as C. C. Slaughter and George Littlefield, that thrived despite several years of winter blizzards and summer droughts. Wells and windmills were located throughout the Surratt Territory to provide reliable water sources for the herds of cattle roaming its plains. The early history of Cochran County settlement is the history of its ranching. The census of 1890 revealed no permanent residents; in 1900 ranchers working in the county accounted for its population of 25, and by 1920 the figure had risen to 67. As free range ranching gave way to fenced pastures of large syndicates and smaller family farms and ranches, the once vast ranch lands were divided. These smaller operations resulted in a division of lands and a surge in population, as reflected by the 1930 census figure of 1,963. Purchased by a succession of absentee landowners after 1900, the Surratt Territory remained intact until 1953.

If you want to visit Bledsoe travel south of Morton eight miles on SH 214 and west on FM 769 for 13 miles to the town of Bledsoe, a South Plains & Santa Fe Railway Company town and cattle shipping center one mile from the New Mexico border. The line opened in 1925.

Travel east on FM 769 and SH 125 to Whiteface, formerly a cattle shipping center but now an oil and gas well operations hub, that includes the Whiteface Historical Museum located in the former Whiteface Hotel (1926). The South Plains & Santa Fe Railway Co completed a line west of Lubbock to Whiteface, Lehman and Bledsoe in Cochran County in 1925. The line from Whiteface to Bledsoe was abandoned in 1983 http://texaslastfrontier.com/railroad/railroad-history/ and the depot at Bledsoe was moved to Lubbock as an artifact in 1973 by Gene Hemmle and located at 6105 19th Street with a historical marker out front. http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=73612  The history of Whiteface is here http://texaslastfrontier.com/towns/whiteface/ including the first producing oil well in the county 1936 on the Duggan Ranch south of Whiteface. Cal Farley’s Girlstown USA was established on the Duggan Ranch property in 1949 eight miles south of Whiteface http://1backup.calfarley.net/girsltown.htm and currently houses 84 girls. I’ve toured the impressive facility at 2490 SH 1780 Whiteface Texas.

Festivities occur each Summer in Morton and sometimes a re-enactment of the Buffalo Soldier event, this year on June 26-28, 2015 Texas Last Frontier Celebration and Buffalo Soldier Encampment. https://www.facebook.com/LlanoEstacadoHeritageFoundation/posts/543329362373166 Here is the poster for the 2014 Celebration http://tools.cira.state.tx.us/users/0026/docs/Flyer-TX%20Last%20Frontier%20Celebration-June%2028-29%202014-General.pdf

The Mallet Ranch (1885) https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/apm11 of Mallet Land and Cattle Company in southwest Hockley County near Sundown Texas was located adjacent to the C.C. Slaughter Lazy S Ranch and the ranches were competitors. David DeVitt operated the Mallet Ranch and his two daughters Christine DeVitt and Helen DeVitt Jones moved to Lubbock late in life. Oil was discovered on the Mallet Ranch in 1937 and oil revenue continues to fund the CH [Christine and Helen] Foundation http://www.chfoundationlubbock.com/history/index.html and the Helen Jones Foundation (1984) that are major philanthropic entities on the South Plains. David J. Murrah, Oil, Taxes, and Cats: A History of the DeVitt Family and the Mallet Ranch (Texas Tech University Press 1994). https://www.depts.ttu.edu/gradschool/docs/scholarships/donors/H.Jones_donor_highlight.pdf Llano Estacado Heritage Foundation is located at 204 E. Carter Street, Sundown Texas 79372 phone 806-638-4524

Mallet Event Center & Arena (2012) http://www.malleteventcenter.com/default.aspx is located on the south side of the city of Levelland Texas and is a marvelous addition to the area. It has a banquet hall, an exposition hall, an arena [dirt], a warm-up arena [also dirt], and covered penning for animals. Small events can be held in the lobby concourse area. Texas Limousin cattle breeders will appear in a show at the Mallet on May 22-24, 2015, a most fitting experience as a legacy from the breeding activities of Christopher C. Slaughter more than a century earlier in this area.

Comanche tribes in the Texas Oklahoma area were, from the Edwards Plateau region going north: Peneteka (honey eaters), Nokoni (those who turn back), Tanina (liver eaters), Tenewa (those who stay downstream), Kotsotekas (buffalo eaters) in Oklahoma, Yamparikas (yap plant eaters) in Arkansas River area in Kansas, and to the northwest Quahadis (antelopes) on the Llano Estacado. Notice that the Whiteface High School mascot is Antelopes, as is Abernathy High School and Post High School. Antelope Texas is on the road between Archer City and Jacksboro twenty miles northwest of Jacksboro in Jack County http://www.texasescapes.com/CentralTexasTownsNorth/Antelope-Texas.htm It is culturally notable that the Comanche of this area called themselves Antelope people and Anglo settlements are named for the antelope and their sports teams mascot is named for the antelope. People who are thought to be so different and distinctive may have at a deep unconscious level similar leanings and appreciations.

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Great Western Cattle Trail Association annual national meeting is Friday-Sunday July 17-19, 2015 at Altus Oklahoma. Due to the recent passing of Mary Ann McCuistian it is being named Mary Ann McCuistian Memorial Conference. A Saturday afternoon excursion will take attendees to Doan’s Crossing of the Red River http://www.redriverhistorian.com/doanscrossing.html on the Great Western Cattle Trail 1874-1893 headed from Texas for Dodge City Kansas. http://www.altustimes.com/news/news/152066423/Great-Western-Cattle-Trail-annual-meeting-to-be-held-in-Altus and cities like Seymour Texas are proud of their location on the trail http://www.greatwesterncattletrail.com/along_gwct_a/along_gwct.html This map depicts the Trail beginning at San Antonio, Kerrville, Abilene, Fort Griffin, Vernon, Doan’s Crossing, Altus Oklahoma, Elk City, Fort Supply, Doby Springs, Ashland Kansas, Big Basin and Dodge City railhead http://www.redriverhistorian.com/greatwestern.html A price of $8 per head at San Antonio compared to $23 per head at Dodge City is what caused the cattle drive to the railhead.

Robin Cole-Jett, Traveling History Up the Cattle Trails: A Road Tripper’s Guide to the Cattle Drives of the Southwest (Red River Historian Press 2014) paperback $15.29 at Amazon.com or $15.52 incl s&h at ABE Books new American culture has grown up around the mythic West – the cowboy, the open range, and the longhorn. What better way to discover the legends surrounding the Old West than to follow the history of the cattle drives? “Traveling History Up the Cattle Trails” offers three historic

road trips that trace the Shawnee, Chisholm, and Great Western Cattle Trails from Texas all the way to Kansas. Complete travel itineraries, vintage photographs, depictions of relics from the past, and trail drive histories make this book a great traveling companion for all readers enthralled with the open road.

The Texas chapter of the Trail is here http://thegreatwesterntrail.com/wp/

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